CRN# 44132: MWF 11:00--12:20
CRN# 44133: MWF 3:30--4:50
Professor John C. Schafer
Office: FH 213
Office Hrs.: Tues. and Thurs.: 2:00-3:00
Note: Go to overheads
for overheads and charts (at least some of the charts) that I have shown you
in class. I'll put these overheads/charts online AFTER the class in which I've
Issues in English as a Second/Foreign Language
- To familiarize you with the variety of sociopolitical and institutional
teaching ESL and EFL
- To help you understand the debate over bilingual education in California and the U.S.
and to familiarize you with current laws related to English Learners in California
- To acquaint you with current approaches to teaching English to speakers
of other languages
- To provide an opportunity for you to experience--as student and teacher--some
ESL instructional techniques
- Brown, H. Douglas. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach
Pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, 2001. Abbrev.: TBP
- Packet of readings (available at HSU bookstore)
- Regular attendance. Absence makes the grade go lower. More than
absences will lower your grade significantly. If you have six absences, excused or
unexcused, I will probably ask you to drop the course.
- One or two quizzes
- A report on an ESL unit (individual written report and group oral report)
- Either Option 1 or Option 2 below:
- Meet with your partner for six weeks, two hours/week;
- Keep a log of your conversations/activities;
- Observe a class of your partner's at the I.E.L.I. and write a class
- Mid-term test
- Final exam
- Attendance, class participation, exercises, quizzes: 15%
- Report on an ESL unit: 15%
- Option 1 or 2: 20%
- Mid-term test: 20%
- Final exam: 30%
Papers turned in late will be automatically marked down one grade per every day late. For
example, an A paper turned in a day late would be graded A-; a B paper two days late
would be graded C+, etc.
VI. English 435 and the Internet
I have tried to find useful sites and insert links to them on this syllabus.
For some class assignments you must consult an on-line web page or article, but many sites
are included in the hope that you will explore them not because you have to but because you
want to. Those of you who elect the paper-writing option may find some of these sites useful
sources of information on your topic. Those of you who elect the
conversation partner option will probably find the sites included
in the online handout "Acting as a Conversation Partner"
to be the most relevant, but sites included on this syllabus may be useful as well.
Here are some sites that make good entry points to use in
out there on the web for ESL students and teachers:
The LinguaCenter is the web page of DEIL (Division
of English as an International Language) and IEI (Intensive English
Institute of the University of Illinois,
Urbana-Champaign. This center maintains this useful
site with links to other useful sites.
- Dave's Cafe
This famous ESL site has just about everything you could think of related to ESL.
- Rong Chang Li's Site
Rong-Chang Li is a graduate of Suzhon Univesity in China and a Ph.D. candidate at
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research area is computer-assisted language learning.
- TESOL Online
This is the site for an association called Teachers of
English to Speakers of Other Languages, the leading professional
organization for ESL/EFL teachers.
- The British Council
The British Council, a government agency of the United Kingdom, has been
teaching English abroad for many years. Its web pages have a great deal of information for
teachers and learners.
- Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL)
According to information provided on CAL's web pages, CAL is "a private,
non-profit organization: a group of scholars and educators who use the findings
of linguistics and related sciences in identifying and addressing language-related problems."
Good site for information on bilingual education and the various program options for
working with English language learners. One of the centers associated with CAL called
(Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence) is a useful site for
ESL teachers. See especially CREDE's
Department of Education's English Learners Website
An excellent site to learn what is happening regarding English learners in California.
- The University of California's Linguistic Minority
Research Institute (UC LMRI)
According to its homepage, UC LMRI is "a multi-campus research unit of the University of
California that was established
in response to the California Legislature's request that the UC's Office of the President pursue
'knowledge applicable to educational policy and practice in the area of language minority
students' academic achievement and knowledge.' This website provides information to
researchers, students, practitioners, and policy makers interested in issues
of language, education, and public policy."
- Dr. Mora's Cross-cultural Language
and Academic Development CLAD Website
Dr. Jill Kerper Mora is an Associate Professor of education at San Diego State
University. She teaches courses similar to English 435 and provides a wealth of
information on her website related to English Learners.
Note these abbreviations:
- TBP: Teaching By Principles
- Packet: Packet of readings available at HSU Bookstore
- Tues., Aug. 26: Introduction to Course. Explanation and (Your) Selection of
Option 1 or Option 2
- Thurs., Aug. 28: The Spread of English and English as a Native Language
English as a
- Second Language (ESL), English as an Associate Language (EAL), and
English as a Foreign Language (EFL).
- TBP, Chapter 8, pp. 115-120
- David Crystal, "A World View" (Packet)
- Sandra McKay, "Teaching English as an International Language" (Packet)
- Tues., Sept. 2: The Spread of English and the Disappearance of Languages.
Explanation of Thursday's Assignment Relating to Demographic Data
- Daniel Nettle and Suzanne Romaine, "Where Have All the Languages Gone?" (Packet)
- Kenan Malik, "Linguists Should Let Dying Languages Rest in Peace" (Packet)
- Should you wish to know more about vanishing languages, the
SIL [Summer Institute
of Linguistics] International provides more information on its website.
- Thurs., Sept. 4: How Many Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students
Are There in the
U.S. and in
- California? What Has Caused the Rapid Increase?
- For overheads and charts relating to immigration,
- Your assignment for today is to find answers to the demographic questions handed
out to you on Tues. The following sites will help you:
Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction Educational
NCELA was formally called the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCBE).
It is funded by the U.S. Department of Education. This is a good source for information
on the number of LEP students in the entire U.S. and
in each of the 50 states
(see the Ask NCELA (FAQS) page.
(Hint: Check out question one.)
See these useful
NCELA pages as well: State Resource
Pages and the California
Education Data Partnership
The Education Data Partnership is a cooperative effort of the Alameda County Office
of Education, EdSource, and the Fiscal Crisis and Management Assistance Team (FCMAT).
According to its homepage, Ed-Data's aim is "to provide easy access to consistent, reliable,
objective information about our public school system. The goal is to enable
better informed decisions for California's schools." This is a good source for useful charts
and graphs related to English Language Learners. To find these charts and graphs,
choose "State Student Trends in the pull-down menu. Then choose reports
related to English Learners
- Educational Demographics Office
This is the California Department of Education's entry site for demographic
information related to California schools
and students. Click on
Dataquest which lets
you create your own reports about API [Academic Performance Index], enrollment, graduates,
dropouts, course enrollments, staffing, English Learners, and Stanford 9 test data. The reports
are available for schools, districts, counties, or statewide.
- Tues., Sept. 9: Teaching ELL's Before and After
- For overheads relating to Prop 227 see
- On January 21, 1974, the Supreme Court of the U.S.
rendered a decision in the Lau v. Nichols case--the most important
federal ruling influencing how English Learners will be instructed.
In June, 1998, Californians passed Proposition 227, which
renders bilingual programs
illegal (unless waivers are obtained). The passage of Prop 227 was a key event in California's
long and acrimonious debate over bilingual education. For this class read the following:
- Excerpts from the
Lau v. Nichols decision
- The text of Prop 227
- A packet of articles describing how California schools are adapting to
Prop 227 that appeared last October (2001) in the California Educator, a journal
published by the
California Teachers Association. Although CTA campaigned against Prop 227
and challenged (unsuccessfully) its legality in federal court, these articles are
informative and quite objective. They are in your packet.
- Christine Rossell,"Summary" (Packet). Rossell
is an opponent of bilingual education. This summary is the first ten pages
of Dismantling Bilingual
Education, Implementing English Immersion: The California Initiative, that is available
on-line. Dismantling Bilingual Education
describes how Prop 227 is being applied
in California schools in 2002; it updates information presented in the
readings from the California Educator.
- In researching for a paper or simply to satisfy your own interest, you may wish to
to read more about the debate over bilingual education in general and/or the more specific
debate related to the effect of Proposition 227. For articles opposing bilingual education, see
the READ Institute's publication page.
For the anti-bilingual education view, you can also consult
homepage. Unz is the
wealthy Silicon Valley software executive who led the campaign against bilingual education
and for Proposition 227.
For articles favoring bilingual education, see
is a journalist and author who has written several books about bilingual education.
Another good source for information supporting bilingual education is
Dr. Mora's Cross-cultural Language
and Academic Development CLAD Website, especially her Road Map to the Bilingual Education Controversy.
Other good sources of information on bilingual education
National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA),
the Center for Applied Linguistics,
CREDE's (Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence)
publications page, and
UC LMRI's (UC Linguistic Minority Research Institute)
Research Dissemination web page.
- Thurs., Sept. 11: Teaching ELL's Before and After Proposition 227(Cont.)
Group Assignment Related to Program Alternatives
- Fred Genesee, Editor, Program Alternatives for Linguistically
Diverse Students, pp. 1-24
- This excellent description of the different program
but can also be read online if the computer
you're using has the Acrobat Reader software, which is easily downloaded from the web. To
find Genesee's report look under "Educational Practice
Reports." You have to scroll down a ways before you get to it.
- TBP, Chapter 8, pp. 120-126
- Tues., Sept. 16: Program Alternatives I. Meeting of Expert Groups. VIDEO:
- Together: Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs
- For overheads and charts relating to program alternatives see
- Fred Genesee, Program Alternatives for Linguistically
Diverse Students, pp. 25-end
- (Remember, this document is
and on reserve.)
- Finishing Genesee's Program Alternatives is the only assigned reading
for today but here are some web sites that will help you understand the alternatives
Genesee discusses. For brief lists of features of the different program
models--transitional bilingual education, dual (two-way) immersion,
etc., you can look at Prof. Mora's
For information on two-way immersion
programs nationwide, see
Immersion (TWI): Frequently Asked Questions", a site maintained by the Center for
Applied Linguistics. See also Elizabeth R. Howard and Julie Sugarman's report
"Two-Way Immersion Programs:
For information on two-way immersion programs in California, see the California
Department of Education's web page
Two-Way Immersion Programs." Read the
FAQ pages and look over
Directory of two-way programs in California.
- Thurs., Sept. 18: Program Alternatives II: Meeting of Jigsaw Groups
No reading assignment for today, but look at
Dataquest again to determine how many English Learners in California
in the 2002-03 academic year received instruction in Structured English Immersion
(also referred to as Sheltered English, or Shetered English Immersion) and how many students
were in some other "instructional setting." To do this, on the Datquest page, choose
"English Learners" from the "Subject" pull-down menu and "State" from the "Level" menu.
Choose the 2002-03 year and then select this report:
"English Learners, Instructional Settings and Services." To find the same information at
the county level, select the report called "English Learners, Instructional Settings
and Services (with County data)." Come to class with information for Humboldt County
and Los Angeles County.
Conversation Partners turn in logs for my response and suggestions
- Tues. Sept., 23: Exploring English Only Programs More Carefully: Pullout Model,
Inclusion Model, and Team-Teaching Model
- Helene Becker, "ESL Program Models in Elementary Schools" (Packet)
Quiz on Program Alternatives: Sheltered, TBE, DBE, Foreign/Second Language Immersion,
- Thurs., Sept. 25: ESL Program Models in Secondary Schools
- Helene Becker, "ESL Program Models in Secondary Schools" (Packet)
- Mauro Staiano, "Lost in the Madding Crowd: An Overview of the ESL
Program at Eureka
- Tues., Sept. 30: Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition I: Behaviorist and
- Vignettes 1 and 2
- For overheads and charts relating to perspectives on
second language acquisition, see three
- Patsy M. Lightbown and Nina Spada, "Theoretical Approaches to Explaining Second
- Learning" (Packet)
- Concentrate on these three approaches: Behaviorism, Innatism, and the Interactionist
- Krashen and Terrell, "Second Language Acquistion Theory," Chapter 2 of
- Thurs., Oct. 2: Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition II: Interactionist.
Instructional Vignette 3
- No additional reading for today
- Tues., Oct. 7: Methodologies
- For overheads and charts relating to the
movement from method to post-method and definitions of methodology, method,
etc., see methodologies.
- TBP, Chapter 2
Rough Draft of Paper I due (for students doing Option 1)
- Thurs., Oct. 9: Total Physical Response and the Natural Method. Excerpts from
- on These Methods
- Patricia Richard-Amato, "The Total Physical Response and the Audio-Motor Unit"
- Investigate a site--part educational, part commercial--related to
TBP that is maintained by
Sky Oaks Productions, the corporation that
owns the trademark "TPR." It includes general information on TPR, including some new articles
by TPR founder James J. Asher.
- Tues., Oct. 14: Review for Mid-Term Exam
- Thurs., Oct. 16: Mid-Term Exam
- Tues., Oct. 21: Techniques. VIDEO: Dialogue/Drill
- For overheads and charts relating to techniques
- TBP, Chapter 9
- Cynthia Brock, "The Effects of Referential Questions on ESL Classroom Discourse"
- Final Draft of Paper I due (for students doing Option 1)
- Thurs., Oct. 23: Interactive Language Teaching: Group Work. VIDEO: Information Gap
- For overheads and charts relating to group work and
exchange systems, see group work
and speech exchange systems.
- TBP, Chapters 11 and 12
- Class observation report due for students
in the top half of the (alphabetical) attendance list.
- See "Observation of a
Class at the I.E.L.I." (Only for students doing Option 2)
- Tues., Oct. 28: Interactive Language Teaching: Group Work and the Negotiation
Demonstration of a Group Activity
- Kate Kinsella, "Designing Group Work That Supports and Enhances
Work Styles" (Packet)
- Thurs., Oct. 30: Content-Based Instruction, Theme-Based Instruction,
and Task-Based Teaching.
- VIDEO: Profile of Effective Teaching in a Multilingual
- For overheads and charts relating to content-based (etc.)
see content-based instruction.
- TBP, Chapter 15
- Tues., Nov. 4: Approaches to Syllabus Design I
- For overheads and charts relating to syllabus
to Syllabus Design.
- Penny Ur, "Module 7: Topics, Situations, Notions, Functions" (Packet)
- Thurs., Nov. 6: Syllabus Design II
- TBP, Chapters 6 and 7
- Tues., Nov. 11: Syllabus Design III: Group Work to Prepare Oral Reports on
- You will meet in groups in class to prepare for your oral report to the entire class
on Thurs., Nov. 14, and Tues., Nov. 19.
- TBP, Chapter 10
- Thurs., Nov. 13: Syllabus Design IV: Group Oral Reports
- Rough Draft of Paper II due (for those doing Option 1)
- Tues., Nov. 18: Group Oral Reports (Continued)
- Thurs., Nov. 20: Review and Quiz on Syllabus Design
- Class observation report due for students
in the bottom half of the (alphabetical) attendance list.
See "Observation of a
Class at the I.E.L.I." (Only for students doing Option 2)
- Week of Nov. 24-28: Thanksgiving Vacation
- Tues., Dec. 2: Form-Focused Instruction
- For overheads and charts relating to form-focused
see form-focused instruction.
- TBP, Chapter 20
- Thurs., Dec. 4: Teaching Writing
- For overheads and charts relating to teaching writing, see
- TBP, Chapter 19
- Students doing option 1: Final draft of Paper II due
Students doing option 2:
- Note: Be sure you have done a
final summarizing entry.
- Tues., Dec. 9: Teaching Writing
- Dana Ferris, "Teaching Students to Self-Edit" (Packet)
- Thurs., Dec. 11: Review
- Thurs., Dec. 18, 10:20-12:10: Final Exam for
1 (CRN #44132; section that meets Tues. and Thurs. from 11:00 to 11:20)
- Thurs., Dec. 18, 3:00-4:50: Final Exam for
2 (CRN #44133; section that meets Tues. and Thurs. from 2:00 to 3:20)
Note: Remember that only students who elect Option 1 are required to write
these two papers.
These papers will require that you use the library and probably internet sources
to find information, so don't leave them
until the last minute. Begin acquiring information early. I mention a place to start
your investigation--a section of TBP or another book or article--but you should consult
other sources as well. This is NOT an assignment that can be written based only on
material from textbooks and class discussions. You should consult and cite at least FOUR
If you use internet sources, try to find trustworthy sites and consult a variety
of sites to avoid learning only one side of an issue. For some topics, I've suggested a
useful site or two as a place to begin.
You must, however, use at least two non-internet sources (for example
two books, or one book and one article) in writing your paper.
See Policy on Due Dates and Make-up Work in Section V.
It is very important to
turn in not only your final draft but also your rough draft when it is due.
The Importance of a Clear Thesis and Organization
Your papers should be thesis-driven; in other words, you should state your thesis, or
position, in your introduction and then support it in the body of your paper. Often a
background section including necessary information on your topic intervenes between
the introduction and body. A rough outline of your paper might look like this:
- Introduction (includes statement of your thesis)
- Background (includes information readers will need to understand your topic)
- Body (includes support for your thesis)
- List of Works Cited (must include at least four different sources, including two
non-internet sources; use
Modern Language Association citation style)
Your papers should be approximately five (5) pages, typed, double-spaced
I. Possible Topics for Paper I (rough draft due Tues., Oct. 7; final draft
due Tues. Oct. 21)
A. The Role of English in _______(You choose the country).
Choose a country that interests you and explore the role of English in it.
Is English taught as a second or foreign language? Is it ever used as the medium
of instruction in schools? How is it taught? If you know someone who has
taught or lived abroad in the country you are writing about, you might interview that
person and use that information in your report (along with information from other sources).
Before choosing this topic, try searching for some information first. It's not easy to find
up-to-date information on English-teaching in some countries, particularly in those places
where the language situation is in a state of flux--countries which were former members of
the Soviet Union, for example. Some countries describe their foreign or second language
programs in government web pages, usually under "Ministry of Education," but articles
in periodicals or newspapers may be the best bet. Search them using on-line databases such
as Lexis-Nexis or Academic Search.
B. The Spread of English and Ethical Questions for English Teachers
Is the spread of English around the globe a good thing--something responsible
language teachers and educators should promote? Or is it something that should be
opposed? What are the arguments for and against the spread of English? If you
choose this topic, you can explore these questions and develop your own conclusions.
This would be a particularly good topic for those of you contemplating teaching
English abroad: writing about it will give you a chance to reflect on some important
issues before you pack your bags and start teaching ESL or EFL in some distant (or
not so distant) place.Until recently just about everybody in the field of TESL assumed teaching
English in developing countries was a good thing: it promoted both intra-national
and international communication, it promoted development, it enabled individuals
in many countries to get better jobs and gave them access to useful scientific
and technical information. Many people still believe English teaching is an
unqualified good but some have suggested that while the spread of English
benefits certain people--those living in the inner circle countries and elites
in the developing countries, for example--it does little to help others, the poor
and illiterate of developing countries, for example. While the field of TESL has
for some time been relatively apolitical, it has become increasingly politicized
of late. English teaching is being associated with imperialism, neocolonialism,
and global capitalism and has been accused of promoting social inequality. While
many people in the field of TESL have assumed, without much reflection, that
English teaching promotes development, some (Bruthiaux, for example; see below)
are now suggesting that basic literacy training in the local language would help
poor people more, and therefore would be better for development than teaching
For your paper you can read works by those who question the spread of English
and develop your own position. The TESOL Quarterly, vol. 36 (autumn, 2002) is
devoted to the issue of how English teaching relates or does not relate to
development, so it would be a good place to begin. See especially the
- Bruthiaux, Paul. "Hold Your Courses: Language Education, Language
Choice, and Economic
- Development." TESOL Quarterly 36 (Autumn, 2002):
Here are some other sources:
Crystal, David. English as a Global Language. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1997.
- Hall, J. K. and W.G. Eggington, eds. The Sociopolitics of English
Language Teaching. Clevedon,
- England: Multilingual Matters, 2000. (Electronic
book available through HSU Library. Use catalyst.)
- Pennycook, Alastair. "Development, Culture and Language:
Ethical Concerns in a Postcolonial
- World." Proceedings of the Fourth
International Conference on Language and Development, October 13-15, 1999.
Phillipson, R. Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
- ________ and Tove Skuttnabb-Kangas. "English Only Worldwide or
Language Ecology." TESOL
- Quarterly 30 (Autumn, 1996): 429-452.
C. The Debate over Bilingual Education in the U.S.
Read about the debate concerning bilingual education. In this
debate one group argues for "structured English immersion" and the other for "two-way
immersion" or "maintenance bilingual education." (See reading assigned for Sept. 9, 11,
and 16 to review these program alternatives.) Explain what
these programs are and summarize the debate about them (but be careful not to make
your paper simply a summary of previous class discussions of these program alternatives).
Give your views (in other words, state your position) of bilingual education and support them.
For good places to begin your search for information,
see the websites mentioned in the syllabus for Sept. 9. For an
overview of bilingual education in California I particularly recommend Patricia de Cos' report
"Educating California's Immigrant Children: An Overview of Bilingual Education" (June,
1999) accessible from NCELA's
One possible way of limiting and focusing your paper would be to concentrate on the current
debate over the effects of Prop 227 in California. You could summarize the debate
between researchers for the Research in English Acquisition and Development (READ) Institute,
who say Prop 227 is doing great, and scholars such as Stephen Krashen and Associate
Education Jill Kerper Mora, who point out problems. See reading assignment for Sept. 9
for links to works by these researchers. (Crawford includes links to Krashen's works
on his web page.)
D. Method or Methodology
Choose one of the methods or methodologies (see discussion of these
terms in TBP, pp. 14-18) discussed by Brown in Chapter 2. Learn all you can about it
and write a paper in which you describe the methodology carefully and state your
view of it. You may wish to use Brown's headings to organize your description: the methodology's
approach, its method, the kind of
followed, and the techniques used in
the classroom. See TBP, Chapter 2. Two additional books to consult: (on reserve)
Blair, Robert W., ed. Innovative Approaches to Language Teaching.
Boston: Heinle and Heinle, 1982.
Richards, Jack C. and Theodore S. Rodgers. Approaches and Methods in
Language Teaching: A
- Description and Analysis. Cambridge:
Cambridge U. Pr., 2001.
E. Beyond Methods
Thinking of TESL in terms of methods is not as popular as it once was, as Brown explains in
TBP, p. 39. We are, according
to some TESOL scholars and teachers, in a "post-method condition." Some people now believe
that thinking of TESL in terms of method leads to a narrow, inflexible, and reductive
approach to teaching--to an approach that
encourages teachers to ignore larger more important concerns: which languages get taught,
for example, or what the ideological content of language teachng might be. You might wish
to write a paper in which you first describe these criticisms of thinking about TESOL through
the prism of methods and then state your own view
of the issue. Here are some readings to get you started:
- Clarke, M.A. "The Scope of Approach, the Importance of Method, and theNature
- In J.E. Alatis, H. H. Stern, and P. Strevens, eds. Georgetown
University Round Table on Language and Linguistics. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown
U. Pr., 1983.
Kumaravadivelu, B. Beyond Methods. New Haven, CT: Yale U. Pr., 2003.
- Kumaravadivelu, B. "The Postmethod Condition: Emerging Strategies for Second/Foreign
- Language Teaching." TESOL Quarterly 28 (1994): 27-48.
Liu, Dilin. "Comments . . ." TESOL Quarterly 29 (1995): 174-177.
Kumaravadivelu, B. "The Author Responds . . ." TESOL Quarterly 29 (1995):
- Pennycook, A. "The Concept of Method, Interested Knowledge, and the Politics of
- Teaching." TESOL Quarterly 23 (1989): 589-618.
- Stern, H.H. "Review of J.W. Oller Jr. and P. Richard-Amato(eds.) Methods
That Work: A
- Smorgasbord of Ideas for Language Teachers." Studies in
Second language Acquisition 7 (1985): 249-251.
In recent years those interested in language teaching methodology have talked a
about how to get students to adopt successful strategies for learning a second or foreign
language. Investigate and report on some approaches to "learner strategy training." See
TBP, Chapter 14. A popular book on language learning strategies is Rebecca Oxford's
Language Learning Strategies (on reserve), so it's a good work to look at. Chamot and
O'Malley have advocated an approach called the Cognitive Academic Language Learning
Approach or CALLA that includes strategy training. You could look at the following works
by these authors, all of which are on reserve:
Chamot, Anna Uhl. The Learning Strategies Handbook. White Plains, NY:
- Chamot, Anna Uhl and J. Michael O'Malley. Learning Strategies in Second Language
- Cambridge: Cambridge U. Pr., 1990.
- Chamot, Anna Uhl et al. Building Bridges: Content and Learning Strategies
for ESL: Book 1.
- Boston: Heinle and Heinle, 1992.
II. Possible topics for Paper II (rough draft due Thurs., Nov. 13; final
Thurs., Dec. 4)
A. Local Programs
By "local" I mean in Humboldt County but you could also investigate a
program in your home community, perhaps one at an elementary, junior high, or
high school that you attended.
You could investigate and report on a local program designed to assist
limited English proficient students. For example, about one-quarter of
the students at Alice Birney School in Eureka are English Learners. You could
visit this school and talk to teachers and perhaps visit a class.
If you're interested in foreign/second languge immersion programs you may wish to visit
Morris Elementary School in the McKinleyville Union School District. This district began
a Spanish immersion program several years ago.
Before you contact any school let me know and I'll first call the principal
or superintendent to make sure it's ok for you to visit.
B. Standard-Based Reform in ESL
At both the national and state level the approach to reform of U.S. schools has been
standards-based: set standards,
examine schools and test students to see if the standards are being met, and then
restructure or close down schools that
continue to fall short. President Bush has championed this approach and has made it the
cornerstone of his
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) Act of 2001 which he signed into law on January 8, 2002.
This act, which defines
the federal role in K-12 education, is a re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act, an act first
passed in 1965 which is re-authorized every five or six years. (Each administration
gives the ESEA a catchy name;
the Bush administration came up with the name "No Child Left Behind," abbreviated NCLB.)
Title III of NCLB
addresses English Learners. For commentary on Title III see two guides: James Crawford's
"Comprehensive Guide to the New Title III" and an "ESEA Implementation Guide" (accessible
from James Crawford's
homepage (You'll have scroll down a bit.)
Individual states have their own standards-based plans, many of them in the works
was passed, and now they are trying to mesh their plans with the new federal
requirements. California is in
this situation. For California's approach to standards-based reform see the
California Department of Education's
web page on
For English Learners the
CDE has promulgated the
English Language Development (ELD) Standards and to test students'
achieving these ELD Standards there is a new test called the
California English Language
- Possible paper topics:
- 1. The ELD Standards
Write a paper describing the new ELD Standards and how they are affecting
way English Learners are taught in California schools. To focus your paper you might
wish to concentrate on a
particular area--listening and speaking, reading, or writing. To obtain first-hand
information, you could
interview local teachers. Textbook series approved by the California Department of
Education, like the one listed below
(on reserve), have handbooks to assist teachers who have English Learners in their
classroom. You could examine
these handbooks and materials and show how they are designed to help students meet
the ELD Standards.
Cooper, J. David and Pikulski, John. Reading California
- Cooper, J. David and Pikulski, John. Reading California:
- "Lesson Planner" CD-Rom, 3 pamphlets)
Cooper, J. David and Pikulski, John. Handbook for English Language Learners
Cooper, J. David and Pikulski, John. English Language Learners: Student
The No Child Left Behind Act requires that schools help English Learners meet "the same
academic content and student academic achievement standards as all children are expected
to meet," and California's ELD Standards are supposed to assist teachers in moving
English Learners toward mastery of the English Language Arts Content Standards for
California Public Schools--the standards native speakers of English are supposed to
meet. When you interview teachers, you could ask them how the ELD Standards are
designed to mesh with the general English language arts standards.
- 2. The California English Language Development Test (CELDT)
Write a paper describing this test and explaining its purposes. Some questions you
- Who must take the CELDT?
- What does the test cover? What kinds of questions does
- What is the purpose of this test?
- What score does an English Learner need
to obtain to be reclassified Fluent English Proficient? Is score on the CELDT
the only factor considered in re-classification?
- How does the CELDT relate to
the ELD Standards?
- How will the CELDT help California schools meet
federal guidelines laid down in No Child Left Behind, Title III?
- What do local
teachers think about the CELDT? Any problems?
- In your opinion, is the CELDT useful in improving education for English Learners
C. Syllabus Design
We will discuss syllabus design in class, but you could explore this topic more
thoroughly, perhaps concentrating one or two designs, pointing out strengths and
- Here are some sources that you could use to begin your search:
- Dubin, F. and E. Olshtain. Course Design. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Pr., 1986.
- Long, M. H. and G. Crookes. "Three Approaches to Task-Based Syllabus Design."
TESOL Quarterly 26
- (1992): 27-56.
- Yalden, J. Principles of Course Design for Language Teaching.
Cambridge U. Pr., 1987.
The above works can all be found in the HSU Library. You may have to use
Interlibrary Loan to obtain other works--or do some searching for articles in
D. Teaching One of the Language Skills
Choose one of the four skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing)
and write a paper about some aspect of teaching this skill.
Use the "For Further Reading" lists that Brown provides at the end of chapters
16 (listening), 17 (speaking), 18 (reading), and 19 (writing) to find works to read
about how to teach the skill you have chosen. Note: In a five-page paper you won't be
able to do a complete report on the state of the art of teaching your chosen skill;
you'll have to narrow your investigation to a particular aspect. Consult with me for
some help in narrowing your topic.
E. The Internet and ESL
Computer Assisted Language Learning, or CALL, is a hot new topic in the field of ESL.
See TBP, pp. 145-46 for a brief discussion. You might investigate CALL and report on what
is available on the internet for both ESL
learners and teachers. One possibility: Put together a web page, one that I could link
to my English 435 web page, of interesting sites. You could focus on sites that are good
to explore with an I.E.L.I. conversation partner, an elaboration of my
in "Acting as a Conversation Partner." You could focus on sites for learners or sites for
teachers. You could get very specific and focus on sites, say, that would help a Japanese
(or French, or Russian) student improve his or her pronunciation.
Mark Warschauer, a professor at the
University of California, Irvine, writes about language learning and technology, and so
you might look at his Recent Papers
(Many papers are available online). Prof.
Warschauer is also one of the editors of a journal for second and foreign language
educators called Language Learning and
Technology. Full text versions of articles in
this journal are available online. The HSU library also has these two books by Prof.
Warschauer, which I've put on reserve:
Electronic Literacies: Language, Culture, and Power in Online
Education. Mahwah, NJ: L.
- Warschauer, Mark and Richard Kern, eds. Network-Based Language Teaching:
. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge, U. Pr., 2000.
- and Practice
- Warschauer, Mark.
- Erlbaum Associates, 1999.
Here are some other sites with information on modern technology and ESL:
TESL-L is a listserv for ESL teachers with more than 12, 000 subscribers. It focuses
on classroom teachers. A teacher will write about a problem she is having and ask for
help. Soon messages filled with suggestions pour in. There are also archives of discussions
of various issues that you can request and they will be sent to your e-mail address. For
how to subscribe, see
Using TESL-L for Research and Teaching English.
For this paper you could subscribe to the list and follow the discussion for two weeks,
then write a paper summarizing what you learned. Or you could pose a question that you're
interested in and report on what you learned from fellow subscribers. Or you could access
an archive of messages on a topic of interest and summarize and evaluate the information you
Note: Articles are listed in order they appear on course syllabus.
- David Crystal. "A World View." English as a Global Language.
- Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press, 1997. 53-63. [ISBN: 052159247X]
- Packet pages: 1-6
- McKay, Sandra Lee. "Teaching English as an International Language:
Implications for Cultural
- Materials in the Classroom." TESOL Journal (Winter, 2000):
- Packet pages: 7-11
- Nettle, David and Suzanne Romaine. "Where Have All the Languages Gone?" Vanishing
- The Extinction of the World's Languages. New York: Oxford, 2000. 1-25. [ISBN:
- Packet pages: 12-24
- Malik, Kenan. "Linguists Should Let Dying Languages Rest in Peace." San Francisco
- Nov. 2000.
- Packet pages: 25
- California Educator. "What's the Fallout of Dismantling Bilingual Education?" "With
- Bilingual Classes Are Staying Alive in Some Areas," "For Children's Sake, Teachers
Make the Best of the
Situation," and "CBET Classes Provide Recipe for Involving Parents." These four articles are
from California Educator 6 (October, 2001): 6-17.
- Packet pages: 26-38
- Rossell, Christine. "Summary." Dismantling Bilingual Education, Implementing
- Immersion: The California Initiative. San Francisco: Public Policy Institute
of California, 2002. i-viii. [Note: This research report is available online at
http://lmri.ucsb.edu/resdiss/tocresdiss.htm. It has not, to my knowledge, been published.]
- Packet pages: 39-49
- Becker, Helene. "ESL Program Models in Elementary School." Teaching ESL K-12:
- from the Classroom. Boston: Heinle and Heinle, 2001. 38-68.
- Packet pages: 50-80
- Becker, Helene. "ESL Program Models in Secondary Schools." Teaching ESL K-12:
- from the Classroom. Boston: Heinle and Heinle, 2001. 69-98.
- Packet pages: 81-110
- Staiano, Mauro. "Lost in the Madding Crowd: An Overview of the ESL Program at Eureka
High School." Unpublished Paper.
- Packet pages: 111-125
- Lightbown, Patsy M. and Nina Spada. "Theoretical Approaches to Explaining Second
Language Learning." How Languages
Are Learned. Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford U. Pr., 1999. 31-48. [ISBN: 0194370003]
- Packet pages: 126-135
- Krashen, Stephen D. and Tracy D. Terrell. "Second Language Acquisition Theory."
Chapter 2 of
- The Natural Approach. Oxford: Pergamon, 1983. 23-51. [Note: The
publisher/distributor for this book is now Pearson Education. ISBN (from Pearson
- Packet pages: 136-150
- Richard-Amato, Patricia. "The Total Physical Response and the Audio-Motor Unit."
Making it Happen.
- White Plains, NY: Longman, 1996. 115-127.
- Packet pages: 151-157
- Brock, Cynthia A. "The Effects of Referential Questions on ESL Classroom Discourse."
- Quarterly 20 (1986): 47-59.
- Packet pages: 158-164
- Kinsella, Kate. "Designing Group Work That Supports and Enhances Diverse Classroom
- Styles." TESOL Journal (Autumn, 1996): 24-30.
- Packet pages: 165-171
- Ur, Penny. "Module 7: Topics, Situations, Notions, Functions." A Course in
- Teaching: Practice and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Pr., 1996. 90-102.
- Packet pages: 172-178
- Ferris, Dana. "Teaching Students to Self-Edit." TESOL Journal
(Summer, 1995): 18-22.
- Packet pages: 179-183