Introduction to Research &
Scholarship for Professional
Notes Week 2
Chapter 2 - Quantitative Research
Types of Quantitative Research
- formal, objective, rigorous, sytematic
- new situations, events, concepts
- Descriptive research - explorations and description of phenomena.
- Examples from astronomy, geology, Darwin's work, etc. demonstrating descriptive research in physical and life sciences.
- Group discussion of how descriptive research might apply in a Nursing context.
- How would Human Subjects rules impact descriptive research in Nursing?
- Would all descriptive research in Nursing involve human subjects restrictions?
- Cause & effect?
- Correlational research
- relationships between or among variables.
- ANOVA = ANalysis Of VAriables, computer programs such as SPSS and MiniTab enable correlations between multiple variables with little effort. However, interpretation of results requires greater sophistication.
- often expressed for two variables on a plot with a correlation coefficient (r) which expresses degree of correlation from +1-0– -1 (drawings of sample plots on board).
- examples of colorimeter data in biology (Absorbance vs. concentration, r = +), cholesterol vs. atherosclerosis (r = +), smoking vs. lifespan (r = -), etc.
- Group discussion of examples of applications of correlational research in Nursing.
- How would Human Subjects rules impact correlational research in Nursing?
- Cause & effect?
- Quasi-experimental research - aimed at demonstrating cause & effect
- Not as controlled as experimental
- Examples from nutrition and medical research - is cause and effect demonstrated
- Group discussion of examples of applications of quasi-experimental research in Nursing.
- is cause and effect demonstrated? Why or why not?
- What is needed to improve quality of demonstration of cause and effect?
- Experimental research
- rigorous control of variables etc.
- examples of experimental research from physics/chemistry/biology.
- Group discussion of experimental research in Nursing.
- Can we do true experimental research with people?
- Can we do true experimental research in Nursing?
- What is the impact or use of experimental research for Nursing research?
- What is the relation of experimental research to Nursing research?
Basic vs. Applied Research
- Pure Basic research often considered to be done strictly for resons of personal satisfaction. Often done for aesthetic or philosophic reasons. Motivation lacks a practical purpose.
- Examples of extra-solar astronomy, high energy physics etc.
- Historically many examples of pure basic research have lead to valuable practical contributions, just not intention.
- Discusion of basic vs. applied research.
Precision – hard science definition distinguishes precision vs. accuracy and exclusive non-related concepts.
- Precision relates to repeatability
- Accuracy relates to actual or true value,
- A shows greater accuracy, B shows greater precision.
- Precesion generally preferred, as can correct "sites" etc. to bring right on.
- Note that in science the actual value may not be known - we often work towards a concensus value. After all, how can we know the "true" value of a natural system, we did not create it!
© R A Paselk
Last modified 6 September 2009