From: Erdmann, Professor Dr. (trans. by Frederick L. Dunlap) Introduction to Chemical Preparations. John Wiley & Sons, London (1900) pp 119-122.

© Richard A. Paselk, 1998





The Kipp apparatus serves for generating gases from solid or liquid materials; if, however, the gas is produced by the interaction of two liquid substances, the Kipp apparatus needs to be supplemented, as shown in Figure 10.
The bulb B is filled with an indifferent, porous material, as pumice, upon which one of the reagents drops from T, passing through the cock h1, and the mercury trap E. The other reagent is in the bulb A, and is forced, by the gas which collects, into C, when the cock h2 leading to the wash-bottle W is closed. K is a bulb apparatus filled with a proper liquid for absorption, so that no -as can escape from the upper opening of the Kipp. Figure 11 represents, on a larger scale, the mercury trap E, which keeps the gas from passing out through r even when, by the sudden

closing of h2, a considerable pressure arises in the apparatus. ln this case, the mercury rises high in the tube r and preserves the equilibrium of the pressure within the apparatus.
In the following table the substances are given from which the various gases are most conveniently prepared.



Evolution of Contents of bulb B: Contents of bulbs A and C:
Chlorine. Chloride of lime.* 7 liters of commercial hydrochloric acid, 5 liters of water.
Carbon dioxide. Marble. 1 liter of commercial hydrochloric acid, 1 liter of water.
Methane. Aluminium carbide. Lukewarm water
Oxygen. Chloride of lime.* 1 liter of hydrogen peroxide, 50 c.c. of commercial nitric acid.
Hydrogen sulphide. Sulphide of iron. 1 liter of commercial hydrochloric acid, 1 liter of water.
Nitric Oxide. Copper turnings. Dilute nitric acid.
Hydrogen. Zinc. 1 liter of sulphuric acid, 4 liters of water.

* Pressed into plates and broken into pieces.




Evolution of Contents of bulb B: Contents of bulb A: Reagent flowing in through T:
Acetvlene. Calcium carbide. Salt solution. 20% sugar solution.
Hydrochloric acid. Pumice. Commercial hydrochloric acid. Concentrated sulphuric acid.
Hydrogen sulphide. Pumice. Concentrated sodium sulphide solution. 1 liter of suphuric acid, 10 liters of water.
Sulphur dioxide. Pumice. 40% solution of sodium disulphite. Concentrated sulphuric acid.
Nitric oxide. Pumice. Ferrous chloride in hydrochloric acid. 20% solution of sodium nitrite.
Nitrous anhydride. Pumice. 20% solution of sodium nitrite. Concentrated sulphuric acid.