Mid-Term Exam Questions - Final Version Spring 2010
- Discuss in detail the types
of interactions expected between toxins and macromolecules and/or
organelles in terms of the forces and bonds involved. Give examples
to illustrate the different interactions.
- Discuss the dose-response relationship,
including the meaning and usefulness of LD50, TD50
etc. Be able to find values for these quantities given various
plots as we have seen. Be able to interpret the various plots
of dose/response we have discussed (gaussian, sigmoidal, linear)
and to find values appropriate to each (mean, median, standard
deviation, LD50, etc.). You
may need to interpret and/or draw plots for a question based
on this material.
- Discuss the various modes of
transport across biological membranes and their relative importance
to the uptake of toxins.
- Discuss the various factors
affecting the transport and ultimate distribution of toxins across
a membrane. Include the effects of ionization and pH, and equilibrium
versus steady state situations. Quantitative examples of equilibrium
distributions are strongly encouraged.
- Discuss the distribution of
toxic substances into various compartments, including in your
discussion: a working definition of a compartment, the factors
most important for a reasonable modeling of the distribution
between compartments, the conditions for reasonably assuming
equilibrium in the modeling, and the advantages of assuming single,
multiple and physiologically based compartments.
- What reactions does the P450
system catalyze? Show how most of these reactions can be accounted
for with a single mechanism (that is, they share essentially
the same intermediate).
General: the midterm will consist
of three to four of the above questions. You are allowed to bring
a 4x6 card with information on it (both sides). I suggest outlining
potential answers in advance, and putting key examples on your
card for use during the exam.
Last modified25 February 2010
© RA Paselk 2006