- Discuss in detail the types
of interactions expected between toxins and macromolecules and/or
organelles in terms of the forces and bonds involved. Give examples
to illustrate the different interactions.

- Discuss the dose-response relationship,
including the meaning and usefulness of LD
_{50}, TD_{50}etc. Be able to find values for these quantities given various plots as we have seen. Be able to interpret the various plots of dose/response we have discussed (gaussian, sigmoidal, linear) and to find values appropriate to each (mean, median, standard deviation, LD_{50}, etc.).*You may need to interpret and/or draw plots for a question based on this material.*

- Discuss the various modes of
transport across biological membranes and their relative importance
to the uptake of toxins.

- Discuss the various factors
affecting the transport and ultimate distribution of toxins across
a membrane. Include the effects of ionization and pH, and equilibrium
versus steady state situations. Quantitative examples of equilibrium
distributions are strongly encouraged.

- Discuss the distribution of
toxic substances into various compartments, including in your
discussion: a working definition of a compartment, the factors
most important for a reasonable modeling of the distribution
between compartments, the conditions for reasonably assuming
equilibrium in the modeling, and the advantages of assuming single,
multiple and physiologically based compartments.

- What reactions does the P
_{450}system catalyze? Show how most of these reactions can be accounted for with a single mechanism (that is, they share essentially the same intermediate).

General: the midterm will consist of three to four of the above questions. You are allowed to bring a 4x6 card with information on it (both sides). I suggest outlining potential answers in advance, and putting key examples on your card for use during the exam.

Syllabus |
Schedule |

*Last modified25 February 2010 *

*© RA Paselk 2006*