Humboldt State University ® Department of Chemistry

Richard A. Paselk

Chem 451

Biochemical Toxicology

Spring 2010

Lecture Notes:: 21 January

© R. Paselk 2008
 
     
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Biology Review

I want to give a brief overview of some organismic biology before we begin our discussion of toxicology. One of the sacrifices made by organisms when they become multicellular is a loss in surface area for exchange vs. volume. Thus multicellular organism must create special organs with large surfaces for exchange of nutrients, gases etc. Of course these surfaces also allow the exchange of toxicants. Lets look at the major organ systems involved in exchanges with the environment:

Cells and Cell Compartments

Look at handout/overhead on compartmentation of cells.

Eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes in having a nucleus and cell organelles (their cells are physically compartmentalized). As a point of reference, an E. coli (bacterial) cell is about the size of a typical mammalian mitochondria.


The figures illustrating the various organs were scanned from: Worthington Hooker and J.A. Sewall. Hooker's New Physiology.
Sheldon & Co., NY (1884).


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Last modified 22 January 2010

© RA Paselk 2001