Final Exam Questions -Final Version Spring 2010
- Discuss in detail the types of interactions expected between
toxins and macromolecules and/or organelles in terms of the forces
and bonds involved. Give examples to illustrate the different
- Discuss the various modes of
transport across biological membranes and their relative importance
to the uptake of toxins.
- Discuss the distribution of toxic substances into various compartments, including in your discussion: a working definition of a compartment, the factors most important for a reasonable modeling of the distribution between compartments, the conditions for reasonably assuming equilibrium in the modeling, and the advantages of assuming single, multiple and physiologically based compartments.
- Diagram and discuss the mechanism of P450. What
is its role in the microsomal monooxygenase system? What other
components are thought to be required in the system?
- Discuss the non-P450 catalyzed phase I reactions,
including equations. What common theme is shared by these reactions
(and the P450 reactions)? Do you think the reactions
of both of these systems operate on xenobiotics by design or
by accident of their presence for other purposes (or both)? Explain!
(Write example rxns).
- Discuss the phase II reactions, including equations. What
common theme is shared by these reactions? Do you think the reactions
of of these systems operate on xenobiotics by design or by accident
of their presence for other purposes (or both)? Explain! (Write
- Discuss and give examples of the major "biological"
factors affecting the metabolism and distribution of xenobiotics
including: species, genetics, sex, environment, age, and pathology.
- Discuss and give examples of how dose, organ/tissue specificity
and enzyme induction/inhibition affect toxin metabolism.
- List, define, and give examples of the major toxic responses
we have discussed.
- Be prepared to discuss a major theme from each of two seminars
General: The final will consist of four to five
of the above questions. Questions appearing on the midterm will
NOT appear on the Final.
You are allowed to bring a 8.5"x 5.5" sheet (half of a standard 8.5"x 11 " sheet of paper) with
information on it (both sides). I suggest outlining potential
answers in advance, and putting key examples on your card for
use during the exam.
Last modified 5 May 2010
© RA Paselk 2008