Humboldt State University ® Department of Chemistry

Richard A. Paselk

Biochemical Toxicology

 

Final Exam Questions -Final Version Spring 2010

  1. Discuss in detail the types of interactions expected between toxins and macromolecules and/or organelles in terms of the forces and bonds involved. Give examples to illustrate the different interactions.
  2. Discuss the various modes of transport across biological membranes and their relative importance to the uptake of toxins.
  3. Discuss the distribution of toxic substances into various compartments, including in your discussion: a working definition of a compartment, the factors most important for a reasonable modeling of the distribution between compartments, the conditions for reasonably assuming equilibrium in the modeling, and the advantages of assuming single, multiple and physiologically based compartments.
  4. Diagram and discuss the mechanism of P450. What is its role in the microsomal monooxygenase system? What other components are thought to be required in the system?
  5. Discuss the non-P450 catalyzed phase I reactions, including equations. What common theme is shared by these reactions (and the P450 reactions)? Do you think the reactions of both of these systems operate on xenobiotics by design or by accident of their presence for other purposes (or both)? Explain! (Write example rxns).
  6. Discuss the phase II reactions, including equations. What common theme is shared by these reactions? Do you think the reactions of of these systems operate on xenobiotics by design or by accident of their presence for other purposes (or both)? Explain! (Write example rxns).
  7. Discuss and give examples of the major "biological" factors affecting the metabolism and distribution of xenobiotics including: species, genetics, sex, environment, age, and pathology.
  8. Discuss and give examples of how dose, organ/tissue specificity and enzyme induction/inhibition affect toxin metabolism.
  9. List, define, and give examples of the major toxic responses we have discussed.
  10. Be prepared to discuss a major theme from each of two seminars (my choice).

General: The final will consist of four to five of the above questions. Questions appearing on the midterm will NOT appear on the Final.

You are allowed to bring a 8.5"x 5.5" sheet (half of a standard 8.5"x 11 " sheet of paper) with information on it (both sides). I suggest outlining potential answers in advance, and putting key examples on your card for use during the exam.


 Syllabus
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Last modified 5 May 2010

© RA Paselk 2008