Humboldt State University ® Department of Chemistry

Richard A. Paselk

Chemistry 438 - Spring 2013

 Final Exam Study Guide

Spring 2013 — Final version


Electron Transport System

ETS Review Exercises

Lipids & Membranes



Fat Metabolism

beta-Oxidation of Fatty Acids

Exercise: Calculate the P/O ratio for the aerobic catabolism of stearate (C=16). Show all work in a table such as we have used in class. Key

Ketone Bodies


Ketone Body Use

What do we mean by the statement: "ketone bodies give the liver overall control of fatty acid metabolism?"

 Exercise:Trace the synthesis of ketone bodies starting with glucose (assume that the organism goes from well fed to starving during this synthesis). Your discussion should include the most likely tissues involved.

  • How many acetoacetate molecules could be synthesized from four initial glucose molecules (assume all processes take place in a single cell).
    • Would glucose be used to make ketone bodies directly? Why or why not?
    • Is it more likely that fat is made first, then used to make acetoacetate later?
  • Determine the energy available from these acetoacetate molecules in ATP equivalents:
    1. Create a table as we have done in class, considering only the acetoacetate molecules themselves.
    2. Does the answer in (1) gives a good estimate of the energy actually used by the organism? As a check try making a table following the path for making and using the acetoacetates. As a simplification, include only the major carbon flux pathways in your table (e.g. glycolysis, beta-oxidation, fatty acid biosynthesis, etc.)
      1. Is this Table a reasonable approximation? Why or why not? (Look carefully.)

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

Exercise: Draw a path, as we did in class, tracing the production of a fatty acid molecule from glucose.

  • Which of the pathways and/or cycles we have seen in class contribute to this process?
  • Starting with serum glucose:
    • Show how all of the carbons can be supplied by glucose.
    • Show how all of the reducing equivalents can be ultimately derived from glucose.
    • Can all of the ATP energy required by this process be supplied by your scheme using just cytosolic reactions?
    • Can the energy required for fat synthesis from AcCoA be supplied by your scheme using just mitosolic sources without using Kreb's Cycle/ETS ATP production?
  • Calculate the minimum number of glucose molecules needed to synthesize palmitate using your scheme.


Where do the various parts of photosynthesis occur in the chloroplast?

Light reactions

Dark reactions

Amino Acid Metabolism

Metabolism of Amino Acid Nitrogen

Urea Cycle

What is the alanine cycle?

Amino Acid Catabolism, the carbon skeletons

Amino Acid Biosynthesis and the One-Carbon Pool

Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

Purine Degredation

Metabolic Integration

Glyoxalate cycle (plants)

Exercise Metabolism


There WILL be a question on the final from the following discussions:

You may bring a data/information sheet to the final exam.

You must not exceed a single sheet of 8.5" x 11 " paper (both sides - 187 square inches) for this sheet!



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Last modified 6 May 2013