Data and most vitamin structures courtesy of Wikipedia Commons article on Vitamins and links to individual vitamins
Vitamin generic descriptor name Vitamer chemical name(s) (list not complete Solubility Structure Diagram Deficiency disease Overdose disease Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Drowsiness or muscle relaxation with large doses. Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water Ariboflavinosis Vitamin B3 Niacin, niacinamide Water Pellagra Liver damage (doses > 2g/day) and other problems Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water Paresthesia Diarrhea; possibly nausea and heartburn. Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal Water Anemia peripheral neuropathy. Impairment of proprioception, nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day) Vitamin B7 Biotin Water Dermatitis, enteritis Vitamin B9 Folic acid, folinic acid Water Megaloblast and Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects May mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency; other effects. Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin, methylcobalamin Water Megaloblastic anemia Acne-like rash [causality is not conclusively established]. Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water Scurvy Vitamin C megadosage Vitamin A Retinol, retinal, and four carotenoids including beta carotene Fat Night-blindness, Hyperkeratosis, and Keratomalacia Hypervitaminosis A Vitamin D Ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol Fat Rickets and Osteomalacia Hypervitaminosis D Vitamin E Tocopherols, tocotrienols Fat Deficiency is very rare; mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants. Increased congestive heart failure seen in one large randomized study. Vitamin K phylloquinone, menaquinones Fat Bleeding diathesis Increases coagulation in patients taking warfarin.
© R A Paselk
© R. A. Paselk 2010; Last modified 1 March 2013