Data and most vitamin structures courtesy of Wikipedia Commons article on Vitamins and links to individual vitamins

Vitamin generic descriptor name Vitamer chemical name(s) (list not complete Solubility Structure Diagram Deficiency disease Overdose disease
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water Thiamine structure diagram Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Drowsiness or muscle relaxation with large doses.[21]
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water Riboflavin structure diagram Ariboflavinosis
Vitamin B3 Niacin, niacinamide Water Niacin structure diagram Pellagra Liver damage (doses > 2g/day)[22] and other problems
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water Pantothenic acidstructure diagram Paresthesia Diarrhea; possibly nausea and heartburn.[24]
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal Water Pyridoxal-P structure diagram Anemia[25] peripheral neuropathy. Impairment of proprioception, nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day)
Vitamin B7 Biotin Water Biotin structure diagram Dermatitis, enteritis
Vitamin B9 Folic acid, folinic acid Water Folate structure diagram Megaloblast and Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects May mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency; other effects.
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin, methylcobalamin Water Coballamin structure diagram Megaloblastic anemia[26] Acne-like rash [causality is not conclusively established].
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water Ascorbic acid structure diagram Scurvy Vitamin C megadosage
Vitamin A Retinol, retinal, and four carotenoids including beta carotene Fat retinol structure diagram Night-blindness, Hyperkeratosis, and Keratomalacia[19] Hypervitaminosis A
Vitamin D Ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol Fat Cholecalciferol structure diagram Rickets and Osteomalacia Hypervitaminosis D
Vitamin E Tocopherols, tocotrienols Fat alpha-tocopherol structure diagram Deficiency is very rare; mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants.[28] Increased congestive heart failure seen in one large randomized study.[29]
Vitamin K phylloquinone, menaquinones Fat Vit K structure diagram Bleeding diathesis Increases coagulation in patients taking warfarin.[30]

 

 

 

 


© R A Paselk

© R. A. Paselk 2010; Last modified 1 March 2013