(3) 1. Draw the complete structure
(20) 2. For each of the pathways
listed below fill in the table to describe its regulation in terms
of main regulatory enzymes, types of control (e.g. substrate availability,
allosteric effectors, product inhibition, etc), and the substance(s)
involved as effector, inhibitor etc.
|Pathway||Enzyme(s) or rxn||Type of Control||Substance(s)|
|Kreb's Cycle (overall)|
(15) 3. Calculate the net energy
gain or loss in (ATP equivalents) for the complete oxidation of
to oxaloacetate (-O2CCH2COCO2-).
Show your work in a table with one reaction per line as
we have done in class [i.e.: glycerol DH x 2; 2 NADH; () ATP etc].
(22) 4. Outline a pathway
for the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water Structures
are not required (names or abbreviations are OK), but all cofactors
and enzyme types must be identified at the appropriate
locations, and the production/use of Pi, NTP,
FADH2, and NADH must be noted.
(18) 5 a. Write out a detailed
mechanism for Aldolase, starting with F-6-P to give DHAP
b. Name the types of catalysis used in your mechanism, and identify (i.e. circle and label) where each occurs.
c. Draw a kinetic mechanism diagram for your mechanism and name it using Cleland nomenclature.
(12) 6. Describe and/or explain thefollowing:
a. lipid bilayer:
b. High energy compound:
c. futile cycle:
d. Energy charge:
(10) 7. Consider the strategies of the reactions in the Kreb's cycle starting with Citrate
(-OOCCH2CH(COO)CH2COO-) and leading to succinate.
a. What kind of chemical transformation first occurs with citrate and why?
b. How is the second oxidation set up?
c. In going from oxaloacetate to citrate to succinyl CoA an acetyl group (2 Cís) is added and two CO2's are lost, with carbon now being in its most oxidized state. Can you now consider that the acetyl group is now completely oxidized? Why or why not? (Hint: why do we need to make oxalacetate now?)
Last modified 21 January 2004