Basic structure and chemistry in carbohydrates.
- What is a carbohydrate?
- What organic functional groups charecterize them?
- What kinds of reactions would you expect them to participate
- Know the structures for glucose in both Fischer (for the
open form) and Haworth (for the ring form) representations.
- Look at the basic structure and chirality of typical CHOs
such as glucose.
- Convert a Fischer structure to its Haworth equivalent.
- Sugar ring structures:
- Hemiacetal (ring-closure) bond formation.
- Why is the hemiacetal bond stable in sugars vs. the instability
seen in organic chemistry?
- Glycosidic (acetal) linkage
- alpha vs beta
- Note the alpha vs beta
orientations in the five membered ring in fructose.
- Know the Lobry-de-Bruyn-van Ekenstein Transformation.
- Note that this transformation enables you to find the structures
of Mannose and Fructose if you know Glucose!
- Di- and polysaccharides
- Know the four dissacharides we studied.
- What do we mean by reducing vs. non-reducing sugars? Which
- What are the biological consequences of alpha
vs beta bonding in CHO metabolism?
- How is this manifested in these example dissacharides?
- Draw structures for polysaccharides (The minimal structures
are given in ( ) below)
- Amylose (-disaccharide-) [alpha-1,4
- Amylopectin/glycogen (-trisaccharide-) [alpha-1,4
linkage & alpha-1,6 linkage]
- Cellulose (-disaccharide-) [beta-1,4
- Chitin (-disaccharide-) [beta-1,4
linkage], but with N-acetyl-glucosamine
- What are the biological functions of these polysaccharides?
- How are their structures related to their functions (e.g.
bonding types and branching).
Functions of Carbohydrates
- What are the major functions for these molecules?
- Are there any patterns distinguishing fuel and structural
forms of CHO's? Why?
- What are the common forms of fuel storage?
- How do they differ?
- What are advantages/disadvantages for each?
- How do animals and plants differ? Why?
- Be able to describe how structural forms are able to accomplish
their jobs and special properties they have.
- Compare/contrast cellulose and chitin
- Which is used by animals? plants? fungi?
- What is a glycosamine? Give an example and its function.
- What are glycoproteins?
Lipids and Biological Membranes
- Fatty acids.
- Memorize structures for:
- stearic acid
- oleic acid
- palmitic acid
- Triacylglycerols (triglycerides).
- What is the basic structure for a triacylglycerol.
- Is either of these molecules chiral? Which?
- Memorize structures for:
- Is this molecule chiral? Which chirality?
- Lipid bilayers as barriers.
- what types of molecules can pass through lipid bilayers?
- what types of molecules are blocked by lipid bilayers?
- Draw a small segment (using the circle = "head" lines = fatty acid "tails"of lipid bilayer containing both saturated and unsaturated fatty acid residues.
- What are some membrane functions?
- Fluid Mosaic Model.
- Chain length and saturation of fatty acid residues vs. membrane fluidity- explain.
- Cholesterol and membrane fluidity.
- Lipid functions in membranes.
- Protein functions in membranes.
©R A Paselk
Last modified 16 March 2011