From the Exam 1 Study Guide:
Origin and Early Evolution of Life
- How old is the Earth?
- How long ago did the precambrian end?
- What marks the end of the precambrian and the beginning of the current Eon? (The modern fossil record of multicellular animals with hard parts began with the Cambrian.)
- What are some of the major occurances in the Precambrian?
- End of major impacts.
- First life.
- When do we think it occurred?
- Where/how did small biomolecules originate?
- The problem of polymers.
- The protein biosynthesis problem.
- Oxygen atmosphere.
Cells: How are prokaryotes and eukaryotes distinguished?
What are the various organelles we discussed and what happens
in each? (basic biochemically important pathways, etc.)
- golgi complex
- smooth endoplasmic reticulum
- rough endoplasmic reticulum
- plasma membrane
Which of the organelles we discussed are unique to plants?
Vitamins and Cofactors
- What are vitamins?
- Know relationship between vitamins and cofactors we have
- Niacin vs. NAD+ and NADP+
- NAD+ = most common oxidation cofactor (catabolism)
- NADP+ = most common reduction cofactor (anabolism)
- Riboflavin vs. FAD and FMN
- stronger oxidizer then NAD+
- Pantothenate vs. Coenzyme A
- carrier of acyl groups (activated)
- linked to lysine to give lipoamide "arm."
- linked to lysine to give biotinamide "arm."
- In what portion (specifically) does the chemistry take place
in each of these cofactors?
- What are the major metabolic functions of NAD+ and FAD?
- What distinguishes NAD+ from NADP+?
- What is the metabolic consequence of this difference?
- What do we mean by metabolic compartmentation?
- What distinguishes FAD from FMN?
- What is the function of the "ADP" portion of NAD+,
NADP+, and FAD?
- What common theme connects NAD+, FAD, and Coenzyme
- What are the specific major metabolic functions of Coenzyme
A, lipoic acid, and biotin?
- What common themes connect these three cofactors?
- How long is the acyl (pentanoate) plus lysine "arm"
for lipoate and biotin (measure in "atoms")?
- How does this compare to the "arm" in coenzyme
- Know the structure of water
- Dipole; Dipole moment.
- Be able to predict the polarity of a covalent bond between any of the "elements of life" (H, C, N, O, S, P, Cl, Br) and the direction of its dipole moment.
- Weak Bonds:
- What is a weak bond?
- What are the different types? (van der Waal's and Hydrogen bonds).
- Compare the relative strengths and stabilities of covalent, ionic, van der Waal's, and H-bonds.
- What are van der Waal's bonds?
- How do they work? (generally contact only).
- When are they important?
- What are Hydrogen bonds?
- Which elements support H-bonding?
- Why is the covalent character of H-bonds important?
- Hydrophilicity - what does this mean?
- Hydrophobicity - what does this mean?
- Why is hydrophobicity important?
- What is the underlying cause/mechanism of hydrophobic "bonding"?
- Compare enthalpic vs. entropic contributions to hydrophobic forces.
- How can entropy drive hydrophobic forces when the entropy of the "bonded" molecules decreases?
- Structure of liquid water.
- How does water structure affect solubility of other molecules? hydrophobicity?
© R. A. Paselk 2010;
Last modified 23 February 2011