Base catalysis of the mutarotation of glucose:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acid catalysis of the mutarotation of glucose:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phenol

Pyridine

 

Concerted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Methanol synthesis from methyl iodide and water via an SN2 mechanism:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bromide catalyst

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proximity/orientation

 

 

 

Last modified 1 March 2010