Chem 438 

Spring 2007 
Lecture Notes: 19 February 


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For simple, onesubstrate enzymes then, have MichaelisMenten Equation as a model for enzyme activity.
Note predicted consequences of model:
Turnover Number. The rate constant (First order) for the breakdown of the [ES] complex, k_{cat} (k_{3}), is also known as the turnover number, that is the maximum number of substrate molecules processed/active site (moles substrate/mole active site): k_{cat}=V_{max} / [E]_{total}. Note that this is best determined under saturating conditions. At very low concentrations of [S] can find the secondorder rate constant for the conversion of E + S E + P: v_{o} = (k_{cat} / K_{M})([E][S].
Double Reciprocal or LineweaverBurke Plot: Need in form: y = ax + b , so take reciprocals of both sides and have
Other linear plots are also available, and are better in terms of statistics (LB one of worst, best quality points [high concentration] have least influence on slope, while low precision points [low concentration] are more spread out, and have a large moment, with a strong influence on the slope and the K_{M} intercept this is not as much of a concern now with computer statistical packages, but you still have to understand the statistics). [overhead: fig 8.2, W et al]

Three major types of inhibition:
Competitive Inhibition: S & I are mutually exclusive, E can bind to one OR the other. (overhead Horton: T33, Fig 5.8)
Plots:
We can model this inhibition with chemical equations, keeping in mind that S & I are mutually exclusive, E can bind to one OR the other:
Classically assume binding to same site, but other possibilities also.
Noncompetitive: the inhibitor can bind to either E or ES. S & I do not bind to the same sites!
Note that will have two inhibitor binding constants, they may be the same, as in the equation above, or could be different, leading to more complex behavior.
Plots for classic, simple situation (overhead MvH 11.5):

Temperature profile reflects two underlying phenomena:
Together these effects lead to the plot below where the rising leg is due to activation energy effects (increasing rate) and the falling leg is due to protein denaturation.
Papain: inflection at pH 4.2 for cys25 and at pH 8.2 for his159.
Note that the two legs represent two pH titration curves (rotate the left leg 90 deg. then flip; rotate the right leg 90 deg. counter clockwise and you can see them), with pK's equal to 4.2 and 8.2 respectively. This is a typical example for an enzyme with titratable groups in the active site. Can also have nonsymmetrical curves with only one group. And of course can have curves due to denaturation by titration of charged surface and interior side chains.
Zymogens: define and give examples of trypsin/trypsinogen.
Pathway Diagrams 

Last modified 19 February 2006