Humboldt State University ® Department of Chemistry

Richard A. Paselk

Chemistry 431 - Fall 2008

 CHEM 431

 Exam II Study Guide

 R. Paselk


2008 Version


Study Guide I material, particularly as it pertains to enzymes and metabolism.What is an enzyme? (define) Turnover number. velocity.



Lock and Key model and its failure. Induced fit model - explain. How do substrates bind? Chemical specificity. Why are enzymes big (<5% of surface is active site).

Zymogens: What are they? Why do they exist? (What enzymes commonly occur as zymogens?)


Know major types we discussed:

What is meant by a "concerted" mechanism?

Be able to explain an enzyme mechanism in terms of the catalytic types we have discussed.

Be familiar with the mechanisms of lysozyme and the catalytic triad of the Serine Proteases we discussed in class.

Enzyme Kinetics

What are main assumptions in steady-state derivation of the Michaelis-Menten eqn?

Note the consequences of the M-M eqn at:

Be able to interpret the Michaelis-Menten (vi vs. [S]) and Lineweaver-Burke (double-reciprocal) plots for both uninhibited and inhibited reactions. Be able to find and/or show on/with both plots:

Know the three type of classical, reversible Inhibition:

Be able to draw and interpret plots of:

Allosteric Enzymes:

Multisubstrate enzymes

Be able to draw and/or distinguish reaction mechanism diagrams for the multisubstrate mechanisms we looked at:

Be able to distinguish these mechanisms using product inhibition data and logic (e.g. "binding same enzyme form").


Lipids & Membranes



Vitamins and Cofactors

What are vitamins?


Overview of Metabolism: Catabolism. Anabolism. Autotroph. Phototroph. Chemotroph.


What is thermodynamics? What can it tell you about a process? Pathway independent.

Energy capture in catabolism

ATP is the common energy "currency" of metabolism.

Know the Stages of Metabolism and what major processes occur in each stage.

Energy regulation in catabolism:

Memorize structures for: ATP, ADP, AMP, NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH; phosphorylated derivatives of sugars (G-6-P, G-1-P, F-1,6-P etc.); glyceraldehyde, glycerate and phosphorylated derivatives; Pyruvate, lactate and PEP


3 stages

Be familiar with detailed catalytic mechanisms for:

Gluconeogenesis and Glycolytic Control

Know how glycolysis/gluconeogenesis is controlled.

Pyruvate Metabolism

Memorize structures for the chemically active portions of: TPP, FAD, Lipoamide.

You may bring a data/information sheet to the exam, however you must not exceed one side of a single sheet of 8.5"x 11" paper (total surface of one-half of one standard sheet of paper) for this sheet! GOOD LUCK!


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Last modified 13 November 2008