Humboldt State University ® Department of Chemistry

Richard A. Paselk

Chem 110

General Chemistry

Summer 2006

Lecture Notes::Lec 21_29 June

© R. Paselk 2006
 
     
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The Representative Elements, cont.

Group V

Chemistry

Group V consists of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth. Again we see a transition from non-metals (N & P) through semimetals (As & Sb) to a metal (Bi).

Molecule Hybridization of M Shape
MX3 (e.g. PCl3) sp3 Trigonal pyramidal
MX5 (e.g. PCl5) dsp3 Trigonal bipyramidal
MX6 (e.g. PCl6-) d2sp3 Octahedral

Properties of Group V

Property N P As Sb Bi
Outer electron configuration 2s2p3 3s2p3 4s23d104p3 5s24d105p3 6s24f145d106p3
Melting point (°C) -210 (bp = -196) 44.1 (white) 814 613 271
Density (g/cm3) 0.88 (liq) 1.82 (white) 5.78 6.70 9.8
Electronegativity 3.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8

Group VI

Chemistry

Group VI consists of Oxygen, Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium, and Polonium. Again we see a trend towards increased metallicity as we go down the group. Oxygen and sulfur are case-study non-metals with no metallic properties of note. Selenium and Tellurium are also non-metallic, behaving much like sulfur (below), however, tellurium has some metallic tendencies. Finally, Polonium is somewhat metallic, considered a metal by some, and forms a basic oxide, but its chemistry is not well known since it has no stable isotopes.

Most commonly the Group VI elements pick up two electrons to give the inert gas valence shell configuration. They tend to form 2- ionic compounds with metals, as we've seen in lab for the sulfides.

Oxides and sulfides are the most common minerals formed by most metals (e.g. galena, PbS; pyrite, FeS; iron oxide, FeO+Fe2O3).

They form covalent compounds with non-metals (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, SF4, etc.).


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Last modified 29 June 2006