Humboldt State University ® Department of Chemistry

Richard A. Paselk

Chem 110

General Chemistry

Summer 2006

Lecture Notes::Lec 14_19 June

© R. Paselk 2006


Return Exam I. Went over grading and Exam problems (particularly stoichiometry and free energy, 1 hour).

Hybrid Atomic Orbitals

We've reviewed atomic orbitals and classical bonding theory, now our question is how can we best understand bonding in molecules, including their shapes etc., in light of modern theory (quantum mechanics)?

We need to keep in mind that our modern picture of simple molecules must be consistent with the classical picture, since it gave us good approximations to observation!

However, when we look at the atomic orbitals for the valence electrons they are generally not arranged in a way that would give the shapes predicted by VSEPR Theory. Thus, the four valence orbitals of atomic carbon are the spherical 2s orbital and the three mutually perpendicular 2p orbitals, while VSEPR predicts that carbon surrounded by four hydrogens will be tetrahedral in shape. [overhead]

So what do we do? Recall that the specific shapes of the orbitals result from the interactions of the electrons with a central positive charge (and each other), so we might expect they would change shape if exposed to an external charge (like a second atom).

One way to model this new situation then is to assume that all four of the atomic orbitals are perturbed into a new configuration. If we assume they all have the same energy (required if they are to form a symmetrical set around the carbon nucleus, for example), then we can assume they each have the average energy of the original four orbitals. We can now come up with a new orbital set by adding the orbitals together, and keeping in mind that we must end up with the same number of orbitals as we started with. If we make this calculation we find there are now four equivalent orbitals arrayed in a tetrahedral geometry, just as we predicted with VSEPR Theory - ta da! [overhead]

Notice, that with this Hybrid Orbital Theory we are looking at individual atoms, not molecules. All of our calculations and predictions are for the atoms. We now make molecules by overlapping the new hybrid orbitals with other hybrid orbitals or with atomic orbitals of other atoms to make a molecule.

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Last modified 19 June 2006