Humboldt State University ® Department of Chemistry

Richard A. Paselk

Chem 110

General Chemistry

Summer 2006

© R. Paselk 2002

Final Exam Study Guide


Summer 2006 - Final Version

The Final Exam will be Comprehensive!

Approximately 1/3-1/2 will focus on recent material and those things you need to know to understand latest material, while the remainder will be on materials from previous exam Study Guides.

Review Study Guides for Exam I and Exam II!

The Chemistry of the Representative Elements: Know periodic trends and patterns within Groups and Periods. Be able to illustrate trends with properties of Groups of elements. You should be able to give and/or interpret examples of trends and properties!

The Chemistry of the d-Block Transition Metals: What are common properties (high reflectivity, metallic luster, good electrical and heat conductivity - note they are NOT all ductile and malleable). What explains these common properties? Why are some transition metals malleable and ductile, while others are not? Why is there such a difference in hardness and melting points etc. Know periodic trends and patterns within Groups and Periods of transition metals. Be able to illustrate trends with properties of Groups of elements. You should be able to give and/or interpret examples of trends and properties! Why do the metals of the first row of transition metals differ significantly from the 2nd and 3rd rows, while the 2nd and 3rd row transition metals are much more similar (electronic structures). We should expect all of the transition metals to have a basic electronic structure of [noble core]ns2(n-1)d1,2,3...10. Where does this pattern not hold? Explain these breaks in the pattern.

Oxidation numbers: Note the pattern of oxidation numbers in the first row of transition numbers - what's going on? Note the oxidation numbers for the first and last Groups of the transition metals (why do these metals have only these values?). Reactivities: Notice how reactivities vary due to both chemical and physical properties - thus comparing corrosion for metals:

Know the chemistry of the elements we have studied in lab as examples of their groups! What are their common oxidation states? What reagents do they react with? Be able to write net ionic equations for all of the reactions discussed in the Lab Book!

Coordination compounds and complex ions: What is a coordination compound? What is meant by coordination number? What is a ligand? Be able to name complex ions given formulae, and to write their formulae give the names (see notes, 11/18). Remember the different orders of components in the names vs. the formulae. What is different about writing complex cations vs. anions? What's the difference between thiocyanate and isothiocyanate. Stereoisomerism: putting multiple groups around a single center gives rise to new compounds due to the geometry of their attachment with coordination numbers of 4 and 6. What conditions are necessary to get geometric or cis-trans isomerism with coordination number four? to get chiral (non-superposable mirror-image) isomerism? What conditions are necessary to get cis-trans isomerism with coordination number six? What other kind of isomerism to we see with coordination number six? How is it different from cis-trans isomerism? Are both coordination number six isomerism types geometric isomerism? Polydentate ligands: What are polydentate ligands? What are chelating agents? What is a chelate? Know the structure and liganding properties of ethylenediamine.

Bonding in Transition Metals Complexes: What are the three models we discussed to explain the bonding in complexes? What are the advantages/disadvantages, successes/failures of each? Which would you use to predict geometry? Paramagnetism? Which would you use to explain colors? Defend your choice in each case. Be able to draw an electron filling diagram for any transition metal complex ion assuming a hybridized orbital set and distinguish between central ion and ligand electrons. Be able to discuss which orbitals are involved in hybridization and why. What do we mean by high-spin and low-spin complex ions? How do we explain them? What is the relationship between high and low spin states and ligand field strengths in crystal-field theory? What basic assumption of crystal-field theory enables the prediction of color in complex ions (new closely spaced energy levels). Be able to draw and label energy diagrams (field-splitting diagrams) for strong and weak field ligands for both octahedral and tetrahedral complexes. Be able to interpret such diagrams. Be able to predict the paramagnetism of an ion with strong or weak field ligands. Be able to use crystal-field theory to predict whether a complex ion will have intense or pale color. For which metals will there be a difference in paramagnetism between strong and weak ligands? Be able to predict relative effects of strong or weak field ligands on the color of a given metal ion. Know the general locations of ligands on the Spectrochemical Series as we discussed it in class. What does this series describe? How accurate/useful is it? When is it most useful? What are its limitations? What approximations did we make in looking at Molecular Orbital Theory for the transition metal ions? Why these approximations? Be able to discuss why we could get away with these approximations and expect a reasonably accurate result.

Know the basic properties, uses and chemistry of the first row of transition metals.

You may bring a single sheet of 8.5 x 11 paper with formulae etc. on one side only

as a "cheat sheet" for the exam.

Make sure you have all relevant formulae and constants on your sheet!

You should be careful and thorough in designing and creating this sheet.

However, remember it is for reference and insurance, the less you rely on it the better off you will be!

You will be provided with a Periodic Chart.

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© R A Paselk

Last modified 3 July 2006