Electrolyte Solutions , cont.
Strong Electrolytes are completely ionized in aqueous solution in concentrations of 1 M or less. Three common classes:
Virtually all inorganic salts are strong electrolytes in the sense that only ions exist in solution. For example sodium chloride dissociates into hydrated sodium ions (Na+(aq)) and hydrated chloride ions (Cl-(aq)). Note that each ion is surrounded by a "shell" of water molecules, countering and diffusing their charges, insulating them from other ions, and keeping them in solution.
Acids which completely dissociate at concentrations of 1 M or less. Thus hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissociates to give H+ and Cl-, nitric acid (HNO3) gives H+ and NO3-, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) gives H+ and HSO4-.
Strong bases dissociate or react completely with water to give hydroxide ions. Thus sodium hydroxide (NaOH) gives Na+ and OH-, and potassium hydroxide gives K+ and OH-.
Weak electrolytes only partially dissociate in aqueous solution in concentrations of 1 M or less. The most common weak electrolytes are weak acids. For example acetic acid (CH3OOH) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) both dissociate only slightly (a few percent or less).
The most commonly used concentration term in chemistry is molarity = 1 mole of solute dissolved in enough solvent to give 1 L = M = mol/L. This is the most popular concentration unit at least in part because of the convenience of making molar solutions with volumetric flasks (show flask).
Note that molarity has various meanings in describing solutions. Commonly molarity refers to the amount of substance dissolved in one liter of liquid to give a solution. Thus if 158.52 g (1 mole) of strontium chloride is dissolved in enough water to give one liter we will have a 1 L solution of strontium chloride. Note however, that while the solution is 1M in Sr2+, it is 2 M in Cl- and 3 M in terms of particles!
There are a number of different kinds of problems.
Make up a 1.000 L solution of 0.25 M NaCl (note that water is the "default" solvent).
What is the concentration of a solution made by dissolving 10.00 g of KI in enough water to make 1.000 L
What is the concentration of a solution resulting from adding 25.0 mL of 0.60 M CaCl2 to 475 mL of water. (Note - both aqueous, so the volumes are additive.)First, I like to keep in mind that Moles = Moles, that is we have conservation of mass.
(Note the units of volume will cancel, so we don't HAVE to convert to L, though it doesn't hurt.)
First need to determine volumes:
volume1 = 0.025 L
volume2 = 0.025 L + 0.475 L = 0.500 L
What is the concentration of chloride ion in this solution?
How much 1.000 M MgSO4 is needed to make 500.0 mL of a 0.25 M solution.
When we combine equal numbers of moles of hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion a neutralization occurs. That is, there is no reactive component left, all of the acid has been consumed by all of the base, and water has been synthesized.
Consider the reaction of 50.0 mL of 0.25 M hydrochloric acid with 25.0 mL of 0.50 M sodium hydroxide.
- Write a net ionic equation for this reaction:
H+ + Cl- + Na+ + OH- H2O + Cl- + Na+
Giving: H+ + OH- H2O
Consider the reaction of a weak acid and strong base: 50.0 mL of 0.25 M acetic acid is reacted with 18.0 mL of 0.50 M sodium hydroxide. Find the number of moles of each of the reactants and products after reaction.
- First recall that for the reaction of a weak acid and a strong base the reaction will go until one of the reactants is completely consumed.
- Writing the net ionic reaction we get (note that since it is a weak acid, we write it in the undissociated state):
CH3COOH + OH- H2O + CH3COO-
- First find moles of each reactant:
- acid = (50.0 mL)(1 L/1000 mL)(0.25 mole/L) = 1.25 x 10-2moles
- base = (18.0 mL)(1 L/1000 mL)(0.50 mole/L) = 0.900 x 10-2moles
- After reaction all of the base is consumed, so:
- base = 0
- acetate = 0.900 x 10-2moles
- acid = 1.25 x 10-2moles - 0.900 x 10-2moles = 0.35 x 10-2moles
- Water synthesized = 0.900 x 10-2moles.
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© R A Paselk
Last modified 20 February 2015