Humboldt State University ® Department of Chemistry

Richard A. Paselk

Chem 109 - General Chemistry - Spring 2015

Lecture Notes 6: 2 February

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Chemical Nomenclature, cont.

First, let's look at the the elements that you should learn the names of, as listed on the web:

HSU Chemistry Elements Names

The common ions and acids and bases are summarized on the handout and the web:

HSU Chemistry Table of Ions & HSU Chemistry Table of Acids

Note that formulae are more or less written with the elements ordered by electronegativity (elements on the right side precede those on the left).

Covalent vs. Ionic compounds:

This distinction will be important in some aspects of naming chemical compounds.

Periodic Table and common ion charges:

IUPAC vs traditional names

There are two common naming systems:

The IUPAC/Stock system

This is the modern, systematic scheme developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists.

Recognize these traditional names for metal ions:

The Nuclear Atom

Atoms are now known to consist of three different types of particles: electrons, protons and neutrons (the common form of one very important atom, hydrogen, has only two kinds: a proton and an electron). The protons and neutrons reside in a small inner portion called the nucleus while the electrons reside in a relatively large cloud centered on the nucleus. Important properties of these particles are listed in the table below:

 Particle

Charge

Relative Mass

Mass

Electron (e-) -1 1/1840 9.11 x 10-28g
Proton (p or H+) +1 ª1 1.67 x 10-24g
Neutron (n) 0  ª1  1.67 x 10-24g

Some important terms which you must know are:

Isotopes

Isotopes are forms of elements which differ only in the number of neutrons. This means different isotopes of the same element have essentially the same chemical properties but slightly different physical properties. They can also differ substantially in terms of their nuclear stability. Let's look at some examples of isotopes:

 Symbol Z A p n e-
14 6 14 6 8 6
238U6+ 92 238 92 146 86
35Cl- 17 35 17 18 18
 18O2-  8 18 8  10 10 

You should be able to fill in the blanks in a table like this, with the aid of a periodic table, on a quiz.

Chemical Periodicity

Look at the Periodic Chart.

Periods

 

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© R A Paselk

Last modified 2 February 2015