Humboldt State University ® Department of Chemistry

Richard A. Paselk

SA 558; 826-5719

Hour Exam 1 Study Guide

Spring 2015 version

Review

Problem sets in text (on schedule), discussion modules, Sapling and appropriate lab calculations; Quizzes 1 & 2.

Be familiar with the HSU Chemistrty Periodic Table you will have on the exam!

Introduction (Chapter 1)

What is Chemistry? Two "definitions" for science. Model vs. Theory. Find/learn definitions/descriptions in your notes and/or text: Scientific method, observation, hypothesis, experiment, temperature, relative temperature, absolute temperature, density, solid, liquid, gas, element, compound, mixture, pure substance, homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous mixture.

Nomenclature

Know the elements, ions, and common acids on the Chemistry Department Supplements on the web. Be able to name compounds using "Stock" (systematic) nomenclature as in your text and lab manual appendix. Be able to: write formulae for compounds named systematically. Be able to write formulas from names and names from formulas for ionic compounds. Be able to recognize and name bases and the acids we looked at in lecture, and to write formulas of these acids and bases given names. Be able to recognize compounds of copper, iron, lead, mercury and tin using the -ous -ic system. (Nomenclature module) Recall also you ONLY need to memorize (be able to correctly spell names for) the elements on the Periodic Table below:

Periodic Table of the Elements
 IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA
1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18
   H  He
Li Be    B C N O F Ne
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca   Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
 Rb Sr                  Ag  Cd   Sn Sb   I  Xe
 Cs  Ba        W        Pt Au  Hg    Pb Bi      

Be able to

convert numbers to scientific notation and use numbers expressed in scientific notation; do all calculations with proper significant figures; make all conversions within the metric system (SI), including liters to m3 etc., (know prefixes in metric system in notes: tera-, giga, mega-, kilo-, deci-, centi-, milli-, micro-, nano-, pico-, femto-.), make approximate conversions between American and metric systems (one inch = 2.54 cm exactly; a yard is about a meter; a quart is about a liter); convert between Farenheit and Celcius (centigrade) temperatures given the formulae; solve density problems and other problems using dimensional analysis.

Atoms (Chapter 2)

Find/learn definitions/descriptions in your notes and/or text: isotope, proton, electron, neutron, Mass number, Atomic mass, periodicity, ion, metal, non-metal, alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, transition metal, halogen, noble gas, representative element.

Be able to describe/discuss the basic premises of the Dalton atom model. Be able to describe/discuss the basic premises of the Thompson and Rutherford atom models, and know what key problem/experiment led to the rejection of each. What is the make-up of an atom according to the modern picture? Be able to fill out tables as we did in class for isotopes (for example: given A & Z find numbers of protons, symbol, etc. Atoms/Isotopes module). What is an isotope? How do isotopes differ from each other? Are there significant chemical differences between isotopes of the same element? Be able to determine the % composition of elements in terms of their isotopes (for an example see the sample Final Exam, problem II.3). Be able to determine the atomic weight of an element given its isotopic % composition.

Read your text chapter on Periodicity.What are Periods? Groups? Which Groups are the Representative Elements? Transition Metals? Inner Transition Metals? What are the combining ratios of the representative group elements with hydrogen? What are the names for Groups IA (1), IIA (2), VIIA (17) and VIII (18)? What are the general properties of elements as exemplified on Periodic Table (which are most likely to lose electrons? gain them? across a period? within a group?). What charges do elemental ions for groups I, II & VIIA usually have? elemental ions for Al, O and S? (Remember our model for predicting ionic charges for elements: Group number for Representative metals, Group number -8 for non-metals.) Where are metals located on the Periodic Table? non-metals?

Stoichiometry (Chapter 3)

Moles and formulae

What is a mole? (One mole = number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of 12C = 6.022 x 1023 particles). What is a formula unit? Molecular weight. Formula weight. Empirical formula. Molecular formula. What is the mass of one atom in grams? What is the mass of one amu? Be able to solve mole problems. (e.g. How many moles of _ in _ ? How many atoms of _ in _ ? How many molecules of _ in _ ? How many grams of _ in _ ? etc. Moles etc. module). Be able to find formula weights of compounds. Be able to find % composition of compounds given formulae. Be able to find formulae of compounds given % composition. Be able to find molecular formulae given % composition and MW.

Chemical Equations

Be able to balance by inspection simple chemical equations such as we have done in class (What are the products of complete combustion of compounds containing only elements such as C, H and possibly O?). Keep in mind our fundamental assumption that mass is conserved, which is manifested by conservation of atom type and number! Be able to balance simple chemical equations and to work with simple stoichiometry (ratios) problems. A series of examples, including a method to keep track of atoms, may be found on my on-line supplements, Balancing etc. module. Note that these examples do NOT represent reactions in solution, so do not involve net ionic equations, which we will see later!

Memorize

Avogadro's number = 6.02 x 1023. Mass of one amu in grams (one gram divided by Avogadro's number).

You will be provided with a Periodic Table


 

Syllabus / Schedule

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© R A Paselk

Last modified 6 February 2015