# Limiting Problems, cont.

• Example: Consider the reaction:

Fe3O4 + 4 C 3 Fe + 4 CO

What is the maximum mass of Fe which could be made from 115.0 g Fe3O4 and 24.00 g C?

The trick here is to find the maximum amount of iron which could be made from each reactant.

The lesser amount will then be the max possible:

C: (3 mol Fe/ 4 mol C)(24.00 g C/ 12.01 g C/mol C) = 1.499 mole

Fe3O4: (3 mol Fe/ mol Fe3O4)(115.0 g Fe3O4/231.6 g Fe3O4/mol Fe3O4) = 1.490 mole

therefore Fe3O4 limits, can only make 1.490 moles Fe.

Grams = (1.490 moles Fe)(55.85 g Fe/mol Fe) = 83.217 g Fe = 83.22 g Fe

• Example: Consider the reaction of zinc metal with acid:
Zn + 2H+ Zn2+ + H2(g)

What is the maximum amount (moles) of hydrogen gas which may be produced by reacting 0.50 g of Zinc with 0.800 mole hydrogen ion? Show work!

For Zn limiting: (1 mole H2/1 mole Zn)(0.50 g Zn) / (65.39 g Zn/mol) = 7.646 x 10-3 mol H2

For H+ limiting: (1 mole H2/2 mole H+)(0.800 mole H+) = 0.400 mol H2

Much less with Zn therefore, 7.6 x 10-3 mol H2

## Percent Yield

Another frequent question arising in chemical processes is the percent yield. This deals with the question of how effective was a given process in producing a product. Its an important consideration because chemical reactions rarely go completley to products. The maximum possible yield for a reaction is known as the Theoretical Yield.

• Example: Looking at the Zn limiting case above, the amount of hydrogen generated would be the theoretical yield = 7.6 x 10-3 mol. Now if the actual yield turned out for a particular experiment to be 6.75 x 10-3 mol, the percent yield would be calculated to be:

(6.75 x 10-3 mol)(100 %) / (7.6 x 10-3 mol) = 88.8% = 89%

# Aqueous Solutions

Definitions:

• Solution - a homogeneous mixture of substances.
• The major component is known as the solvent.
• The substances dissolved in it (by definition minor components) are solutes.
• Solubility - a measure of how much solute will dissolve in a given solvent under given conditions (default = 20 °C, 1 atm).
• Liquids which dissolve in each other are called miscible.
• Liquids which do not dissolve in each other are considered immiscible.

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