# Spring 2011 version

### Review

Problem sets and Quizzes since Exam I. Review nomenclature so that you can read questions and understand them. Review concepts and information from Exam I that we continue to use in looking at additional system etc.

Be able to: convert numbers to scientific notation and use numbers expressed in scientific notation; do all calculations with proper significant figures; make all conversions within the metric system (SI)

### Gases (Chapter 5)

Be able to do gas stoichiometry problems. Graham's Laws of effusion and diffusion - know and be able to solve problems. Module 10 (Gas law problems 6 & 7) What is the Kinetic Molecular Theory for gases? Kinetic Energy (KE=1/2 mv2). What are its postulates? What is the meaning of temperature (what is it a measure of)? What relationship is there between temperature and pressure (in microscopic terms- what are the particles doing)? Temperature and volume?

### Thermochemistry (Chapter 6)

Understand/define exothermic and endothermic. What are exothermic and endothermic reactions. What is heat? work? energy? enthalpy? E = q + w. H= E - w. When are enthalpy and energy equal? Be able to solve heat capacity problems, calorimeter problems. Understand thermochemical equations (what happens to H if the reaction is rewritten in reverse? What is a formation reaction? What are: standard state, standard heat of formation, standard enthalpy of formation? f . Know Hess's Law. Be able to solve heat/enthalpy of formation problems .Module 11(Thermochemistry)

### Electrons, Atoms and Periodicity (Chapter 7)

What are De Broglie waves? = h/mv. When is this equation used? What is the relationship between m & f? m & ? Be able to rearrange and to solve problems with this equation. Module 12 (Energy & Light) What does the Schrödinger equation describe? What are nodes? Be able to apply the concept of nodes to standing waves (as on a string) and to electron distributions. What does refer to for electrons and atoms? Be able to draw and to interpret cross-sectional diagrams of electron distributions in atoms for s & p orbitals. Be able to draw and interpret probability density ( vs. r) plots for s & p orbitals for any value of n. How is the number of nodes related to n? How is a node represented on a vs r plot? Remember there is always one node at infinity. Atomic Orbitals supplement

What is an orbital? How many electrons can one orbital accommodate? What is a shell? Know number and letter designations (n= 1,2,3.. or K,L,M,...).What is a subshell? How are shells and subshells related to energy? Be familiar with energy and filling diagrams. What is spin? How does it effect orbital filling? What is paramagnetism? when does it occur?

Be able to give electronic configurations using all three of the conventions we have discussed. Know which orbitals are being filled for different regions of the periodic table. Know what the four quantum numbers are and be able to assign quantum numbers to any electron in an atom, or to give an orbital designation for a set of quantum numbers. What information does each of the quantum numbers convey? (energy, orbital shape etc.) What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle and why is it important? How are nodes related to quantum numbers? (n = # nodes, l = angular nodes,...) Module 13(Quantum Numbers, Electronic Structure of Atoms & Periodicity)

Discuss/Understand the various periodic properties we have discussed (atomic radii, ionization energies, electron affinities, electronegativities, stoichiometric ratios, metallic vs. non-metallic properties) and know the trends.

How do these periodicity's relate to electronic configuration? Be able to explain trends, etc. in the plots of these properties. Be able to describe the properties of elements in grps I-A, II-A, VI-A, VII-A, & VIII-A. Be able to name each of these groups of elements. Where are the transition metals? the lanthanide's? the actinides?

### Chemical Bonding (Chapter 8)

What is electronegativity? How is it used? Be able to use electronegativity (both quantitatively and qualitatively-hi,lo rules) to predict the ionic/covalent nature of a bond.

What is an ionic bond? How is it formed? What forces maintain it? Anion. Cation. Ion pair. Be able to apply the octet rule to guess the ionic forms of the various "A" group elements. Why are outer electron shell octets so stable? What is a covalent bond? How do ionic and covalent bonds differ? How is it possible for an ionic bond to be "strong" and unstable while a covalent bond may be stable while not being as "strong"? How are electrons arranged in each?

What is a Lewis Structure? What is it intended to show? For which elements are Lewis structures most useful? (A groups) Be able to draw Lewis structures for all the A-group elements in their atomic and predicted ionic forms. Kernel vs. inert gas core.

 Syllabus / Schedule C109 Home