A Quantum Picture of Atomic Orbitals

A brief introduction to orbitals is illustrated with QuickTime movies based on quantum calculations in the Atomic orbitals supplement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Periodic Table of the Elements
   IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA
   H  He
2 Li Be    B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg   IIIB IVB VB VI VIIB VIIIB IB IIB  Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca (3) Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5  Rb Sr (4)  Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd  Ag  Cd  In Sn Sb Te I  Xe
6  Cs  Ba (5) Lu Hf Ta  W Re Os Ir  Pt Au  Hg Tl  Pb Bi Po At Rn
  s1 s2   d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 d8 d9 d10 p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Periodic Table of the Elements
   IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA
   H  He
2 Li Be    B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg   IIIB IVB VB VI VIIB VIIIB IB IIB  Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca (3) Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5  Rb Sr (4)  Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd  Ag  Cd  In Sn Sb Te I  Xe
6  Cs  Ba (5) Lu Hf Ta  W Re Os Ir  Pt Au  Hg Tl  Pb Bi Po At Rn
  s1 s2   d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 d8 d9 d10 p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p6

Spectroscopic notation using the Noble gas core convention

  • P: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3
    • [Ne] = 1s2 2s2 2p6
    • P = [Ne] 3s2 3p3

 

 

  • V: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d3
    • [Ar] = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
    • V = [Ar] 4s2 3d3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Periodic Table of the Elements

   IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA
   H  He
2 Li Be    B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg   IIIB IVB VB VI VIIB VIIIB IB IIB  Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca (3) Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5  Rb Sr (4)  Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd  Ag  Cd  In Sn Sb Te I  Xe
6  Cs  Ba (5) Lu Hf Ta  W Re Os Ir  Pt Au  Hg Tl  Pb Bi Po At Rn
  s1 s2   d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 d8 d9 d10 p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p6

Orbital Filling Diagrams:

H orbital filling diagram

 

He orbital filling diagram

 

Li orbital filling diagram

 

N orbital filling diagramNotice how the electrons first fill into empty orbitals before they pair up

 

O orbital filling diagramNow when we add one more electron it goes back to pair up with the first p electron.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Periodic Table of the Elements

   IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA
   H  He
2 Li Be    B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg   IIIB IVB VB VI VIIB VIIIB IB IIB  Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca (3) Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5  Rb Sr (4)  Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd  Ag  Cd  In Sn Sb Te I  Xe
6  Cs  Ba (5) Lu Hf Ta  W Re Os Ir  Pt Au  Hg Tl  Pb Bi Po At Rn
  s1 s2   d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 d8 d9 d10 p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p6

Electrons lost in Ions

  • Na+ = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s0 or [Ne] 3s0 = 1s2 2s2 2p6 or [Ne]

 

  • Cu2+ = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s0 3d9 or [Ar] 4s0 3d9 = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d9 or [Ar] 3d9

 

  • Fe3+ = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s0 3d5 or [Ar] 4s0 3d5 = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p63d5 or [Ar] 3d5

 

© R A Paselk

Last modified 14 October 2009