Visual aids for lectures
Listening Denotative/Conotative Informative Activity Introductions Language: Malapropism Supporting Evidence Memorize Language devices Fact, Value or Policy? Too Many MPs Language-clarity Reasoning Evaluating Support Specific Purposes Attendance/Grades Speech day directions Central Ideas from MPs
I recited this to a student in the hallway in a flat, neutral, evenly paced voice and with no special eye contact, facial expression or physical expression:
The exact composition of a planning committee is anything but hard and fast. It should be determined by using a formula based on energy and leverage. Some people need to be involved because of their perspective, expertise, or position within the group. There are others who should be involved because they demonstrate enthusiasm and commitment to the process. In any case, when planning, you should consider the following people for membership on the committee. Executive director: There can be no meaningful planning unless the organization's manager is involved. Board members: Planning runs only skin deep unless the board is forced to grapple with the essential problems raised by the process.
I recited again to a student in the hallway, but asked them to notice dynamics and take notes--listen for keywords. I made the bolded words stand out with pauses, gestures and expression. I tried to focus their listening to important ideas. I paused between bulleted items
planning committee composition The exact composition of a planning committee is anything but hard and fast.
It should be determined by using a formula based on two things: energy and leverage.
Two types of people should be involved
Some people need to be involved because of their perspective, expertise, or position within the group.
There are others who should be involved because they demonstrate enthusiasm and commitment to the process.
In any case, when planning, you should consider the Executive director and Board members for membership on the committee.
Executive director: There can be no meaningful planning unless the organization's manager is involved.
Board members: Planning runs only skin deep unless the board is forced to grapple with the essential problems raised by the process.
Try to discern both the strengths and weaknesses of these introductions:
What tiny crystal fortified the coffers of many ancient empires and laid waste to others? What mineral has the power to create and the power to destroy? What is "good as gold" when scarce and "cheap as dirt" when abundant?
The answer to all these questions is salt, the spice of life. Today, I would like to look at the importance of salt in history, how we spice up our lives with salt today, and at the role salt will probably play in our future.
series of questions for getting attention
introduces topic clearly; concise preview statement
no establishing of credibility; needs more direct relating to audience.
We have so much unused human potential. By improving the use of your time, you can have much more time for social activities. You can use your mental processes more fully, thereby improving your grades. You can also increase your physical stamina and improve your health. We must learn to know our bodies.
relates to audience
fair job of getting attention
does not reveal topic of speech, no credibility, no preview statement
A six year-old-collie lay battered and helpless by the side of the road. The car that hit her had broken her pelvis, dislocated her hip, and smashed her jaw. It had also blinded her, and she whimpered in pain and fear.
Unfortunately, this true story happens too frequently because of the growing problem of pet over-population. Having grown up on a farm with animals of all kinds, I care deeply about their welfare, and I have become aware through my veterinary courses of how serious the problem of pet over-population is.
excellent with getting attention & introducing topic & establishing credibility
lack of preview statement
could be strengthened with more direct relating to audience.
Every problem has at least two sides. When one side is right, and the other side is wrong, the problem is easy to solve. But what if both sides have merit in their arguments? How do you solve these problems?
Balancing the rights of everyone in an adoption is one of these problems. The parents who give up the child have a right that all the information they disclose be kept confidential, while the adopted child has a right to know about the identity of his or her natural parents.
In this speech, I'd like to explore this problem with you and then look at one approach to solving it.
good job revealing topic & previewing main points
does not establish credibility
weak attention getter
REORGANIZING MAIN POINTS
Reorganize the following eight Main Points into fewer, logical categories
I. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by cutting defense spending.
II. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by raising income taxes.
III. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by imposing a luxury tax on nonessential items.
IV. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by cutting welfare spending
V. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by cutting foreign aid.
VI. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by stricter enforcement of income tax collection.
VII. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by adding a tax surcharge for upper-income families.
VIII. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by cutting aid to states and cities.
I. One way to reduce the deficit in the federal government is by cutting spending.
(signpost, transition: we can do that in four ways...)
(internal preview: cutting defense, welfare, foreign aid and aid to states)
A. Defense spending should be cut.
B. Welfare spending should be cut.
C. Foreign aid should be cut.
D. Aid to states and cities should be cut.
(internal review: OK, we've shown cut spending in defense, welfare, foreign aid and aid to states; transition: lets talk about increasing revenue)
II. Another way to reduce the deficit in the federal budget is by increasing revenue.
(signpost, transition: we can do that in four ways...)
(internal preview: raising income taxes, better collecting of taxes, luxury taxes and special taxes for upper income people)
A. Income taxes could be raised.
B. The collection of income taxes could be more strictly enforced.
C. A luxury tax could be imposed on non-essential items.
D. A tax surcharge on upper income families could be instituted.
DENOTATIVE VS. CONNOTATIVE LANGUAGE
REWRITE FOR CLARITY
REWRITE EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES USING CLEAR, FAMILIAR WORDS.
In recompense for his crimes he will be incarcerated in a penal institution.
To pay for his crimes he will be sent to jail.
Subsequent to next Wednesday's meeting, we will implement the newly enacted guidelines.
After next Wednesday's meeting, we will begin to use the new guidelines.
I cannot conceive of any situation in which such an outcome could eventuate.
I can't conceive of any such result.
If we find the reasonable probability of repayment is slipping away from us, then we will have to respond in terms of nonextension of credit.
If you don't repay your loan, we won't lend you any more money.
The citizenry were stirred to indignation by the recent action of their elected legislative representatives in Congress for increasing the burden of taxation.
The citizens are angry at Congress for raising taxes.
WHICH STATEMENT IS MORE EFFECTIVE? WHY?
A B Freedom is like a drum; strike it anywhere and it resounds everywhere. The impact of freedom in one part of the world has a great impact on freedom in other parts of the world.
Uses simile, imagery and parallel structure
A B We should always negotiate from a position of strength, and we should always be willing to negotiate. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.
--John F. Kennedy
Use of antithesis; use of alliteration, “never negotiate”
A B Now is the time to ensure democracy for all citizens, to put an end to segregation, and to abolish racial injustice. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.
--Martin Luther King
More vivid, forceful and rhythmic because of repetition, parallelism, metaphor and imagery
SPECIFIC PURPOSE STATEMENTS
IDENTIFY THE PROBLEMS OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS AND REPHRASE CORRECTIVELY
• To persuade my audience to drink Diet Pepsi instead of Diet Coke.
• To inform my audience about the growth of credit-card fraud and the methods of sound financial planning.
two separate ideas.
To inform my audience about the growth of Credit-Card fraud
To inform my audience about the methods of sound financial planning
• To persuade my audience that something must be done about the problems of America's deteriorating bridges.
too broad; doesn't specify what must be done
• To inform my audience about France.
• What is Lyme Disease?
phrased as a question
To inform my audience about the symptoms, causes and treatments of Lyme Disease
• To inform my audience why square grooves are superior to U-shaped grooves on golf clubs.
Too technical; too trivial
• Give Blood.
written as a fragment.
• To persuade my audience that being a Big Brother is a rad experience.
ACTIVITY: writing Central Idea from MP's
General Purpose: to inform
Specific Purpose: to inform my aud about the three major races in downhill skiing
Central Idea: The 3 major races in downhill skiing are the downhill, the slalom, and the .giant slalom
The first major race in alpine skiing is the downhill.
The second major race in alpine skiing is the slalom.
The third major race in alpine skiing is the giant slalom.
General Purpose: to persuade
Specific Purpose: to persuade my audience to support the school-board referendum
Central Idea: The school-board referendum should be supported because it will improve classroom facilities, increase the number of teachers, and upgrade instructional resources.
You should support the school-board referendum because it will improve classroom facilities.
You should support the school-board referendum because it will increase the number of teachers.
You should support the school-board referendum because it will upgrade instructional resources.
General Purpose: to inform
Specific Purpose: to inform my audience about the major achievements of Jane Addams
Central Idea: Jane Addams was a woman of many achievements as a social worker, a reformer, a suffragist, and a writer.
As a social worker, Jane Addams founded the settlement house in Chicago.
As a reformer, Jane Addams campaigned for child labor laws, unemployment compensation, and better public sanitation.
As a suffragist, Jane Addams fought to give women the vote.
As a writer, Jane Addams is best known for her autobiographical Twenty Years at Hull House.
Identify how the following statements exhibit at least one ineffective use of support.
1) In the words of one expert, "Electromagnetic radiation emitted by power lines and by everyday household items such as electric blankets may pose a serious health threat."
doesn't identify expert
doesn't present expert's credentials
2) The total land and water mass of the United States is 3,623,420 square miles. The largest state is Alaska, with 591,004 square miles; the smallest is Rhode Island, with 1,212 square miles.
stats not rounded
source not identified
3) A random poll of 265 people taken in Washington, D. C., showed that 78% of those interviewed opposed term limitations on U. S. Senators and Representatives. Clearly then, the American people oppose such limitations.
poll not representative of entire US
sampling too small, range restricted
source not identified
4) As Dustin Hoffman said in a recent interview, America must act now to stop the pollution of its coastal waters. If it does not, the beauty of our beaches and coastlines may be permanently destroyed.
source not qualified
5) It's just not true that television has an influence on crimes by young people. All my friends watch television, and none of us have ever committed a major crime.
conclusion is a hasty generalization
6) According to statistics compiled by the School Board, the annual median salary for teachers in our district is $38,750 a year. This shows that teachers average almost $39,000 a year.
median confused with mean, the average.
median is middle number; might differ considerably from the average
7) Every day 15,000 people die of starvation. That's one person every 4.5 seconds. A half-billion people are chronically hungry. The U. S. Bureau of Labor states that over 900 million people are trying to subsist on less than $300 a year for a family of four. Of that 900 million people, one half are starving. Another million people suffer from malnutrition. An additional one billion people in 40 nations try to live on 27 cents a day.
too many statistics in too manydirections
not related to audience in personal terms
8) According to a study conducted by United Airlines, the quality of service in the American airline industry is better than it has ever been.
United Airlines is largest airline company in US
has vested interest in promoting itself
not an objective source; govt. or consumer group more credible sources
EVALUATE THE USE OF SUPPORTING MATERIAL IN THE FOLLOWING SPEECH EXCERPT. BE SURE TO DEAL WITH ALL THE SUPPORTING MATERIALS IN EACH PARAGRAPH, AND BE SPECIFIC IN ASSESSING THEIR STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES.
According to emergency medicine specialist Dr. Randall Sword, emergency rooms will handle more than 160 million cases this year alone. This means that one out of every 16 Americans will spend time in an emergency room this year. Unfortunately, the National Academy of Sciences states that "emergency medical care is one of the weakest links in the delivery of health care in the nation." In fact, medical researchers estimate that 5,000 deaths annually from poisoning, drowning, and drug overdoses, as well as 20 percent of all deaths from automobile accidents, would not have happened if the victims had received prompt and proper emergency room care.
stat in sentence 1 comes form credible source
in sentence 2, speaker explains stat and relates it to audience
could be more directly related
good quote from NAS, followed by stat showing seriousness
stat should be attributed to specific source, not �medical researchers�
One cause of this problem is that many doctors are not properly trained in emergency care. According to U.S. News and World Report, fewer than 50 percent of emergency room physicians have completed special emergency training courses. A survey by Frey and Mangold found that untrained emergency room physicians felt they were unsure how to diagnose or treat many of the extreme abdomen, chest, and cardiac disorders that often appear in hospital emergency rooms.
supporting material relevant to training claim
stat in sentence 2 from credible source
Frey & Mangold not made credible or identified
Another cause of the problem is that precious time is often wasted on useless paperwork before vital emergency treatment begins. Several years ago, a man driving by an elementary school in my hometown had a heart attack and crashed into a school yard. Seven children were taken to the emergency room three blocks away, but the real tragedy had not yet begun. Once in the emergency room, the children were denied treatment until their parents were contacted and the admitting forms were filled out. By the time the forms were completed, two of the children had died.
extended example dramatic, vivid, relevant
should provide stats or testimony to show example is not atypical
INFORMATIVE SPEECH ACTIVITY
Arrange into four groups of students.
Be assigned type of info speech: object, process, event, concept.
MAKE A LIST: 5 good topics for that type of speech (object, process, event, concept )
DEFINE TYPE OF INFO SPEECH: Describe characteristics of that type.
• Choose best topic from your list of five.
• Write specific purpose and central idea.
• Develop a few main points.
• Audience/speaker appropriateness.
• Choice of topic for type of speech.
• Organizational pattern.
DESCRIBE THE FOLLOWING FOR YOUR CHOSEN TOPIC
• What you expect the audience to know?
• How you could relate subject to audience?
• How you could avoid being too technical?
• How you could handle abstractions?
• How you could personalize?
• What types of supporting materials should be used?
• Where would you find them?
FACT, VALUE OR POLICY?
To persuade my audience that colleges have a moral obligation to ensure that all scholarship athletes receive their degrees.
To persuade my audience that colleges should continue scholarships for athletes who are actively pursuing their degrees.
To persuade my audience that all government programs should be cut equally to help reduce the federal deficit.
To persuade my audience that it is not right to try to reduce the federal budget by cutting some programs but not others.
To persuade my audience that prolonged work in front of video display terminals causes a number of health problems.
To persuade my audience that employees have a right to refuse potentially harmful work situations such as prolonged work in front of video display terminals.
To persuade my audience to protest against the proposed cutback in funding for evening courses.
To persuade my audience that it is unfair for our school to sacrifice the needs of evening students to day students.
FIND THE FAULTY REASONING
There can be no doubt that the great depression was caused by Herbert Hoover. He became president in March 1929, and the stock market crashed just 7 months later.
Is new president responsible?
Is electing new president sufficient cause?
Fallacy of false cause (post hoc, ergo propter hoc)
Depression caused by number of complex forces.
Conditions in place before the election.
One non-smoker, interviewed at a restaurant said, "I can eat dinner just fine even though people around me are smoking." Another, questioned by a Gallop Poll, said she doesn't mind working in an office where people are smoking. A third, responding to a Los Angeles Times survey said, "I don't see what all the fuss is about. My wife has smoked for years and it has never bothered me." We can see, then, that cigarette smoke does not cause a problem for non-smokers.
fallacy of hasty generalization.
3 examples not enough
specific instances alone not sufficient
should also produce statistics and testimony
(from non-biased sources)
In Scotland, adoption records are not sealed and adults who were adopted as children may routinely obtain their original birth certificates. There is no evidence that this leads to fewer adoptions or unhappy adoptive families in Scotland. Surely, then, we can institute the same policy in the United States without creating serious problems.
reasoning from analogy
analogy may be valid
Are social values and family life in Scotland and US similar enough?
Sex education classes were instituted in the public schools during the early 1960's. The number of teenage pregnancies has risen every year since 1966. It is clear then, that there would not be so many teenage pregnancies if there were no sex education classes in the schools.
fallacy of false cause: post hoc ergo propter hoc
Sex Ed Only cause?
Sex Ed Necessary cause?
Sex Ed classes sufficient cause?
In sport, as in war, there is no substitute for victory
reasoning from analogy
assumes sports and war so much alike: that what's true for one is true for the other
war and sports are fundamentally different
purpose of war? purpose of sports?
Relationship between Attendance and Grades